creativity is a powerful asset

TBNC Edgemon Commercial Properties GOD Bless America US Flag Master, Carlsbad, California USA












Celebration Teaching Academy and K-12 School

Schenkel Schultz Architecture and KBJ Architects are the Associated Architects


A K-12 Public School and Teaching Academy was commissioned by the Walt Disney Development Company. Informed by a set of educational reform qualities, the school is a key part of the development of Disney’s Celebration Town.

The thirty-six [36] acre campus, serving one thousand, two hundred [1,200] students each year, is located on the commons in the heart of the new town.




TBNC Edgemon Campus Hotels of America University of Redlands Golf Academy & Hospitality Program, Redlands, California USA

The University of Redlands is a private liberal arts and sciences university located in Redlands, California. The university's campus sits on one hundred sixty [160] acres [0.6 km²] near downtown Redlands. The university was founded in 1907 and was associated with the American Baptist Church.


The land for the university was donated by church member Karl C. Wells.

The university maintained its religious orientation and required chapel attendance of all students until 1972. The university is now an independent institution but maintains an informal relationship with the American Baptist Churches USA.


TBNC Edgemon Campus Hotels of America University of Redlands Resort, Hoyel, Spa & Golf Academy Development, Redlands, California USA


The University of Redlands [UR] had its roots in the founding of two other American Baptist institutions, California College in Oakland, and Los Angeles University.

After the San Francisco earthquake of 1906 damaged the finances of California College, a Baptist commission began exploring the liquidation of both institutions to develop a new institution in Southern California. The Reverend Jasper Newton Field, a Baptist pastor at Redlands, persuaded the Redlands Board of Trade to propose a donation of at least one hundred thousand [$ 100,000] dollars and forty [40] acres [16 ha] for an interdenominational campus [on land donated by layman Mr. K.C. Wells]. On June 27, 1907 the Commission voted all in favor of the Redlands proposal.

Ground was broken on April 9, 1909, on the hill where the administration building now stands. Nine [9] Founding Faculty Members held their first day of classes in the Redlands Baptist Church on September 30, 1909, with thirty-nine [39] students attending.

On January 27, 1910, the University of Redlands opened its physical doors by occupying the newly completed Administration building. Bekins Hall and the President's mansion were the only two [2] other buildings completed. President Field was charged with further securing two hundred thousand [$ 200,000] dollars for endowment, but the 1912 United States cold wave, which wiped out half [1/2] the California citrus crop and severely damaged the local economy, made this impossible.

President Field resigned in 1914. Victor LeRoy Duke, Dean and Professor of Mathematics, became the next president. The Southern California Baptist community initiated a campaign to raise fifty thousand [$ 50,000] dollars to clear outstanding debt. The following spring the Northern Baptist Education Board endorsed the school, promising to help raise an endowment.

By 1925 the Faculty numbered twenty-five [25], and student enrollment had increased to four hundred sixty-five [465].

Finances had improved to the extent that, with significant volunteer help, UR was able to erect twelve [12] new buildings by the end of the decade. New dormitories, classrooms, a library, memorial chapel and gymnasium were built. A school of education was added. A developing alumni base also started to support the university. By 1928, the University's endowment was two million, five hundred ninety-two thousand [$2 ,592,000], dollars, the fourth [4th] largest in the state and among the top ten 10%] percent of American Universities.


University of Redlands Culture and Traditions

TBNC Edgemon Campus Hotels of America Redlands Master Plan with Resort, Hotel, Spa, and Golf Academy, Redlands, California USA

The "R": This letter carved into the vegetation of the San Bernardino Mountains started as prank in 1913, but still stands today and is currently the second-largest collegiate letter in the nation

Mascot: The University has an English Bulldog, Thurber, who serves as the official mascot. Thurber took over title from his grandfather Duke in September 2010. Duke and Thurber can be found at various campus events or at their kennel near the office of admission.




Site Identifications - General Plan - Structural Improvements - Expanded Campus Opportunities


Campus Hotel - 64 Suites, Fine Dining & Community Hospitality


Campus Chapel & Weddingplace


Campus Conference Centre - Components A, B, C & D


Campus Golf Academy


Campus Professional Golf Training Range


Campus Expanded Tennis Courts





Campus Tennis Clubhouse & ADA Compliant Facilities



Campus and Public Welcome Cafe & Bistro


Golf Academy Pro-Shop & Golf Center



Campus Academia Specific Purpose Lodging



Campus Academia & Public Welcome Accommodations


Campus Alumni / Family / Interscholastic Lodging





Campus & Public Welcome Gift Shoppe


University / Alumni Enhancements - Public Welcome Benefits - Expanded Recreational Opportunities


Alumni Campus & Visitor Library / Study Hall / IT Centre



Greek Amphitheater Enhanced Venue


Campus Performance Stage & Entertainment Centre



Expanded & Enhanced Tennis Facility


Campus & Interscholastic Lecture Halls


University / Alumni Expanded Interscholastic Opportunities - Expanded Competitive Recreational Opportunities


Hotel & Hospitality Curricula Facility & Accommodations


Community Welcome & Campus Conference Facilities


Golf Academy Interscholastic Competition Facilities



Tennis Academy Interscholastic Competition Facilities



Debate Venue Interscholastic Competition Facilities



Campus & Community Welcome Theater & Parkland


Campus & Community Media & Publications Centre



Facilities Operational & Administrative Centre


ADA Compliancies - Accessibilities & Facilitations - Integral Architectural Design Components


ADA Compliant Academia & Public Lodging


ADA Compliant Academia & Public Accessibility Zones



ADA Compliant Academia Specific Accessibility Zones



ADA Public-Use Accommodations & Applications


ADA Compliant Academia Specific Lodging



ADA Compliant Interscholastic / Guest Accessibility



ADA Campus & Public Transportation Lighted Station



ADA Compliant Alumni & Public Restroom Facilities



ADA Compliant Alumni & Public Drinking Fountains



ADA Compliant Alumni & Public Van Access Parking


Environmentally Enhanced Site Development - Accomplished Landscape Architecture & Land Planning Applications


Enhanced Ornamental Structural Wooden Trim Bridge


Enhanced Ornamental Waterfeature with Vertical Waters



Enhanced Flowage Control Greek Mill Zanja



Enhanced Campus Interconnecting Pedestrian Trails



Enhanced Project Solid-Surface Service Routing



Expanded Vehicle Accessibility & Parking Standards



Enhanced & Expanded Specimen Street Tree Program



Enhanced Site Perimeter Tree Canopy & Screening





Site Specific Safety & Security - Fire & EMS Accessibilities - Fire Fuels Management


Fire & EMS Primary Project Accessibility Routing


Fire & EMS Secondary Project Accessibility Routing



Fire & EMS Tertiary Project Accessibility Routing



Fire & EMS Alternate Project Accessibility Routing



Central Project Hotel Structure & Accessory Support



Campus Conference Centre Fire & EMS Standards



Campus Chapel & Weddingplace Fire & EMS Standards



Campus Golf Academy & Training Centre Fire & EMS Standards


Campus & Public-Use Cafe & Bistro Fire & EMS Standards


Campus & Public-Use Tennis Centre Fire & EMS Standards



Campus & Public Prototypical Lodging Fire & EMS Standards



Amphitheater, Stage, Entertainment Venue Fire & EMS Stds


EMS & Medical Care / First Aide Stations



Project Mandated Fire Hydrants per Fire Marshal



Project Perimeter Site Fire Fuels Vegetive Management



Enhanced Fire Code Status Ornamental Wooden Bridge


ADA Compliancies - Accessibilities & Facilitations - Integral Architectural Design Components


ADA Compliant Facilities Accessibility


ADA Special Conditions Lodging & Habitation


ADA Compliant Public Access Restrooms & Changing Stations



ADA Compliant Site Rails System & Surfaces Applications



ADA Compliant & Site Dedicated Van Accessible Parking



ADA Signage & Graphics Schema & Mandated Information



ADA Compliant Stainless Steel Water Fountains


Site Development Schedule & Plan of Improvements - Phase Scheduling


Campus Hotel 64-Suite, Fine Dining & Guest Support Amenities


Campus Chapel & Weddingplace


Campus Conference Centre, Suites A,B,C & D


Campus Golf Academy, Study Halls & PRO Shop



Campus Golf Training Course & Putting Greens



Campus Tennis Academy / School & Lessons Office



Multi-Application Alumni / Public Lodging & Housing



Multi-Application Alumni / Student Specific Lodging & Housing



Greek Amphitheater, Stage & Entertainment Venue


Campus Media, Telecommunications and Publications



Expanded & Enhanced Existing Tennis Courts / Facility

University & Community Enhanced Benefits & Educational / Entertainment Opportunities


Recreational / Green Space Public Welcome Golf Academy


Community Benefit, Public Welcome Hotel Resort Complex


Community Benefit, Public Welcome Chapel & Weddingplace


Community Benefit, Public Welcome Conference Centre


Community Benefit, Public Welcome Greek Amphitheater Venue


Community Benefit, Public Welcome Tennis Centre


Community Benefit, Academia & Public Transportation Stop



U of R Project / Program Administrative & Operations Centre


Community & Urban / Site Planning Administration - Facilities Operational Schedules - Benefits to the University & Public


CHA + UoR Joint-Office Administration & Operations



Agency Authorization Hotel, Conference & Chapel Activities


Agency Authorization Site Lodging & Housing Activities


Agency Authorization Golf Academy & Interscholastic Competition



Agency Authorization Tennis School & Interscholastic Competition



Campus, Guests & Public Transportation Hub & Site Shelter



CHA - UoR Site Specific Lease Delineation Line



CHA Req. Additional Improvements External to Lease Delineation



Specific NOT A PART Neighboring Properties [Fee Simple]


Environmentally Enhanced Site Development - Accomplished Landscape Architecture & Land Planning Applications


Golf Course, Training Targets, Site Perimeter Vegetation



Tennis Academy, Recreational Venue, Site Landscape Screening



Enhanced Ornamental Wooden Trim Bridge, Fire & EMS Standards



Enhanced Mill Creek Zanja Waterfeature & Vertical Waters



Enhanced Mill Creek Zanja Flowage Control & Site Ornamentation



Enhanced Mill Creek Zanja Headwall Control & Site Ornamentation



Enhanced Greek Amphitheater, Stage & Entertainment Venue


Enhanced Site Development; Extensive Site-Perimeter Vegetation



Enhanced Primary Street / Avenue Specimen Trees Program



Site Security, Enhanced Golf Training Range Fencing & Foliage








TBNC Edgemon Campus Hotels of America University of Redlands Golf Academy & Hospitality Program, Redlands, California USA









Vernacular architecture is a category of architecture based on local needs, construction materials and reflecting local traditions. At least originally, vernacular architecture did not use formally-schooled architects, but relied on the design skills and tradition of local builders.

However, since the late 19th century many professional architects have worked in versions of the style.


It tends to evolve over time to reflect the environmental, cultural, technological, economic, and historical context in which it exists. While often difficult to reconcile with regulatory and popular demands of the five [5] factors mentioned, this kind of architecture still plays a role in architecture and design, especially in local branches.

Vernacular architecture can be contrasted against polite architecture which is characterized by stylistic elements of design intentionally incorporated for aesthetic purposes which go beyond a building's functional requirements. This article also covers, where somewhere between the two extremes yet based upon authentic themes the term traditional architecture


Architectural Etymology

The term vernacular is derived from the Latin vernaculus, meaning "domestic, native, indigenous"; from verna, meaning "native slave" or "home-born slave". The word probably derives from an older Etruscan word.

In linguistics, vernacular refers to language use particular to a time, place or group. In architecture, it refers to that type of architecture which is indigenous to a specific time or place [not imported or copied from elsewhere]. It is most often applied to residential buildings.


The Environment and The Materials

The local environment and the construction materials it can provide, govern many aspects of vernacular architecture. Areas rich in trees will develop a wooden vernacular, while areas without much wood may use mud or stone. In early California redwood water towers supporting redwood tanks and enclosed by redwood siding [tankhouses] were part of a self-contained wind-powered domestic water system.

In the Far East it is common to use bamboo, as it is both plentiful and versatile. Vernacular, almost by definition, is sustainable, and will not exhaust the local resources. If it is not sustainable, it is not suitable for its local context, and cannot be vernacular.


Vernacular and the Architect

Architecture designed by professional architects is usually not considered to be vernacular. Indeed, it can be argued that the very process of consciously designing a building makes it not vernacular.

Paul Oliver, in his book Dwellings, states: " is contended that 'popular architecture' designed by professional architects or commercial builders for popular use, does not come within the compass of the vernacular". Oliver also offers the following simple definition of vernacular architecture: "the architecture of the people, and by the people, but not for the people."

Frank Lloyd Wright described vernacular architecture as "Folk building growing in response to actual needs, fitted into environment by people who knew no better than to fit them with native feeling", suggesting that it is a primitive form of design, lacking intelligent thought, but he also stated that it was "for us better worth study than all the highly self-conscious academic attempts at the beautiful throughout Europe".

Since at least the Arts and Crafts Movement, many modern architects have studied vernacular buildings and claimed to draw inspiration from them, including aspects of the vernacular in their designs. In 1946, the Egyptian architect Hassan Fathy was appointed to design the town of New Gourna near Luxor. Having studied traditional Nubian settlements and technologies, he incorporated the traditional mud brick vaults of the Nubian settlements in his designs. The experiment failed, due to a variety of social and economic reasons, but is the first recorded attempt by an architect to address the social and environmental requirements of building users by adopting the methods and forms of the vernacular.

Since the emergence of the term in the 1970s, vernacular considerations have played an increasing part in architectural designs, although individual architects had widely varying opinions of the merits of the vernacular.












Abby Door Solutions is the Premier Fabricator / Vendor Provider & Supply Outlet for Custom Designed Fire Rated Iron, Wood and Glass Entry Doors

"Blows the Doors Off" the Competition with Superior Craftsmanship and Long-Term Proven Track Record in the Architectural Community.



Visit Abby Iron Doors
Offsite Web Presence



A Brief History of Building Codes

Building and fire codes have been developed and applied for hundreds of years to enhance the safety of occupants within the built environment.

Over time, codes and standards have evolved to ensure accessibility for people with disabilities, provide sustainable construction products and practices, strengthen buildings against severe windstorm events, blast forces, and many other essential needs.

While these requirements encompass a broad and very diverse spectrum, ASSA ABLOY remains the global leader in door opening solutions, providing building owners and occupants with the assurance of code compliant openings. Since building code adoption and enforcement varies across the country, it is encouraged to consult local Authorities Having Jurisdiction for requirements related to any specific project or building.



The origin of accessibility guidelines, standards and laws date to the early 1990s, when provisions were created to facilitate equal access to places of public accommodation, commercial facilities, and state and local government facilities.

Today there are multiple standards and laws that regulate architectural design, form and function to ensure accessibility for all, regardless of physical, visual or hearing impairment.


Quick Reference — Requirements

ADA 404.2.3 Clear Width

Door openings shall provide a clear width of thirty-two [32"] inches [815 mm minimum.

Clear openings of doorways with swinging doors shall be measured between the face of the door and the stop, with the door open to ninety [900] degrees.

Openings more than twenty-four [24"] inches [610 mm] deep shall provide a clear opening of thirty-six [36"] inches [915 mm] minimum.

There shall be no projections into the required clear opening width lower than thirty-four [34"] inches [865 mm] above the finish floor or ground.

Projections into the clear opening width between thirty-four [34"] inches [865 mm] and eighty [80"] inches [2030 mm] above the finish floor or ground shall not exceed four [4"] inches [100 mm].



ADA Standards for Accessible Design – 2010
ICC A117.1 Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities – 2009

ADA 404.2.5 Thresholds

Thresholds, if provided at doorways, shall be one-half [½”] inch [13 mm] high maximum.



ICC A117.1 - 404.2.6 Door Hardware

Handles, pulls, latches, locks, and other operable parts on accessible doors shall have a shape that is easy to grasp with one hand and does not require tight grasping, pinching, or twisting of the wrist to operate.

Operable parts of such hardware shall be thirty-four [34"] inches [865 mm] minimum and forty-eight [48"] inches [1220 mm] maximum above the floor.

Where sliding doors are in the fully open position, operating hardware shall be exposed and
usable from both sides.

ADA 404.2.8.1 Door Closers and Gate Closers

Door closers and gate closers shall be adjusted so that from an open position of ninety [900] degrees, the time required to move the door to a position of twelve [120] degrees from the latch is five [5] seconds minimum.


ADA 404.2.8.2 Spring Hinges

Door and gate spring hinges shall be adjusted so that from the open position of seventy [700] degrees, the door or gate shall move to the closed position in five [5] seconds minimum.

ADA 404.2.9 Door and Gate Opening Force

Fire doors shall have a minimum opening force allowable by the appropriate administrative authority.

The force for pushing or pulling open a door or gate other than fire doors shall be as follows: Interior hinged doors and gates: five [5] pounds [22.2 N] maximum.

Sliding or folding doors: five [5] pounds [22.2 N] maximum.

These forces do not apply to the force required to retract latch bolts or disengage other devices that hold the door or gate in a closed position


ADA Advisory 404.2.9 Door and Gate Opening Force

The maximum force pertains to the continuous application of force necessary to fully open a door, not the initial force needed to overcome the inertia of the door. It does not apply to the force required to retract bolts or to disengage other devices used to keep the door in a closed position.


Door Surfaces
ADA 404.2.10 Door and Gate Surfaces

Swinging door and gate surfaces within ten [10"] inches [255 mm] of the finish floor or ground measured vertically shall have a smooth surface on the push side extending the full width of the door or gate.

Parts creating horizontal or vertical joints in these surfaces shall be within 1∕16 inch [1.6 mm] of the same plane as the other.

Cavities created by added kick plates shall be capped.

Vision Lights
ADA 404.2.11 Vision Lights

Doors, gates, and side lights adjacent to doors or gates, containing one [1] or more glazing panels that permit viewing through the panels shall have the bottom of at least one [1] glazed panel located forty-three [43"] inches [1090 mm] maximum above the finish floor.

Exception: Vision lights with the lowest part more than sixty-six [66"] inches [1675 mm] from the finish floor or ground shall not be required to comply with 404.2.11.


Automatic and Power Assisted Doors
ADA 404.3 Automatic and Power-Assisted Doors and Gates

Automatic doors and automatic gates shall comply with 404.3.

Full-powered automatic doors shall comply with ANSI/BHMA A156.10

Low-energy and power-assisted doors shall comply with ANSI/BHMA A156.19 [1997 or 2002 Edition].


ADA 404.3.1 Clear Width

Doorways shall provide a clear opening of thirty-two [32"] inches [815 mm] minimum in power-on and power-off mode.

The minimum clear width for automatic door systems in a doorway shall be based on the clear opening provided by all leaves in the open position.


Abby Iron Door Construction


12 gauge steel construction


5/8” solid iron hand crafted scroll work


2” thick door panel. Thicker door panel means better insulated


Door panels and jamb are injected with hi-density, closed cell Polyurethane foam


For double doors, flush bolt installed to lock in the inactive door


Heavy duty greased door hinges with ball bearing


4 door hinges for a standard 96” tall door, 3 hinges for 80”door


Jamb size is available from 4” to as large as 15”


36” x 96” door weights 300-400lbs, 72” x 96” doors weights 800-900lb




We offer Push/Pull hardware and Cylindrical locks


If purchased without hardware, we will prepare the doors for cylindrical locks (2 1/8” boring, 2 ¾” backset, 5 ½” center to center, 2” thick door, we recommend knob interior handle)


We can prepare for Mortise lock or other hardware at no extra charge!




Kerf Vinyl-Clad weather-stripping installed around the door stop and T-astragal


Dark aluminum door threshold for rust-free operation. We do not recommend steel threshold because it will rust after wear and tear


Heavy duty door sweep, weather stripping around glass panel are included


Abby Iron Door
Doors Features & Specifications



Clear glass is included


5/8” double pane, tempered, insulated


Glass panel is operable for cleaning, ventilation and extra security


Upgrade available for privacy glass (Glacier, Rain, Low-E Clear, Impact glass and Frosted glass)




After welding, the doors are sand blasted and acid wash to remove any impurities


Followed by our 6 step finishing process: Zinc galvanization, epoxy primer, black primer, black paint, faux finish and sealed with matt clear coat


Comprehensive touch-up paint kit is available free of charge




Five [5] years on finishes


Ten [10] years on parts


Transferable Warranty





The doors are shrink wrap, recycled paper wrapped, bubble wrapped and crated with ½” wood panels.


For double doors, we separate door jamb and door panels into three packages so that it can be unloaded from the delivery truck by two [2] to four [4] people.



Abby Iron Doors [AID] Ten [10] year warranty is longer than any other competitors in the industry, and providing clients with extra security when choosing AID to serve Up-Scale Residential or Commercial Properties.

With no hidden fees, AID offers flat rate quotations on all designs and configurations, as well as additional items, such as weather stripping and thresholds. Additional customization is available on each product. Anything AID can do to ensure the vision and design goals are reached and surpassed, AID will do!

Abby Iron Door Solutions is experienced in all types of projects, including religious and historical buildings. AID track record and project history speaks for itself, and the enduring quality of the products can not be understated.

AID doors are certified to meet Florida, and Other Jurisdictions Design and Structural Standards, meeting some of the strictest building codes in the U.S.

All AID scrollwork is handcrafted and with 12-gauge steel construction provides strength and resilience in addition to their aesthetically pleasing and stylish design.



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Offsite Web Presence












In business since 1892, Wheeler has been "Committed to Performance" producing solutions for a variety of construction segments.

Wheeler is multifaceted, providing quality building materials and related services which serve both public and private infrastructures.



Wheeler has been supplying timber bridges to States, Counties and Towns for generations.

While standards change, the values of timber design grow. Modern bridges can reflect the past and meet the needs of today. Whether simply crossing the stream or building a landmark, it’s time to consider timber bridges.

With advances at our steel fabrication facility Wheeler offers many steel bridge components. This furthers our line of highway bridge offerings. Many designs now incorporate both timber and steel components.

Wheeler is an executive member of the Short Span Steel Bridge Alliance [SSSBA].

Wheeler combines engineering, manufacturing experience and the proven capability of treated wood to offer a variety of highway related solutions.

Over the years, Wheeler has developed expertise in designing and supplying a variety of treated timber highway products. These products are provided with the same level of service and quality expected from Wheeler.




Railing combinations can vary by intended use and differing codes requirements.  Most bridges incorporate a toe plate, safety rail and rubrail.  Orientation for the safety rail is typically vertical or horizontal.  Custom designs are available at additional expense.

Safety rail spacing can vary by code, but AASHTO standards are typical.  Handrails can be added if ADA requirements apply.

Wheeler recommends the truss end with a vertical to provide easy termination of the safety rail at the end of the bridge and transition to any approach rail.  If slanted ends are preferred it is still recommended to extend the safety rail to the end of the bridge.

Approach railing guides users onto the bridge.  Custom sections can be built to match or compliment the bridge.  Less expensive options utilize treated wood.  Regardless of the style, the use of approach railing is encouraged.


The USDA Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory, in cooperation with the U.S. DOT Federal Highway Administration and the Midwest Roadside Safety Facility, have adapted several crashworthy timber bridge railings and approach railing transitions for use on concrete bridge decks.

The details closely match crash-tested railings provided by Wheeler for many years. We offer complete material packages based on the standard drawings issued by the USDA FS FPL.

All timber materials are pressure treated and all hardware is hot-dipped galvanized. Appropriate material certifications are available.

Timber railings are easy to maintain or repair if damaged. Properly treated, they last the life of the structure. Best of all, they provide unmatched aesthetics.


Wheeler treats with QNAP as supplied by Nisus

Nisus Corporation has EPA approval to manufacture and sell QNAP concentrate.  Wheeler enjoys a productive relationship with Nisus and looks forward to new offerings.

QNAP is available for all Wheeler treated timber products.

Copper Naphthenate has proven to be a popular preservative which was reinforced by the feedback received when its future was in doubt.


Corporate Headquarters

3620 SW 61st Street · Suite 330 · Des Moines · Iowa 50321


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From surf to snow, Whatley's architectural products offer unsurpassed durability.

Whatley's patented winding process and precision engineering ensures that our fiberglass poles are capable of supporting difficult loading requirements including multiple fixtures, banner loads, and even solar panels.


Metal poles degrade due to exposure to moisture, salt, and fertilizers. Whatley composite, fiberglass poles will not rust, rot or decay even when subjected to these harsh conditions. 

Every Whatley pole has been painted with a premium proprietary blend of polyurethane enamel finish which results in enhanced performance proven through the test of time.

When it comes to durability, Whatley continues to raise the bar with our state-of-the-art XTREME line of decorative base covers.



More than forty [40] years ago, W.J. Whatley Inc. introduced a fiberglass filament-wound lighting pole.

This patented design offered several unprecedented advantages. It was non-corrosive for a virtually maintenance-free, long life cycle; and non-conductive for enhanced safety. Its revolutionary lightweight to strength offered easy, economical installation while delivering unparalleled durability.

Today, Whatley is a leading supplier of composite lighting poles and lamp posts specified by utilities, municipalities, developers, electrical engineers, landscape architects and governmental agencies from coast to coast. As part of Valmont Custom Composites, Inc., we have the knowledge, expertise and resources to provide high-quality, precision-engineered products and services to the industries we serve.

As we continue to grow, expect a continued dedication to quality, service and the innovation that started it all.




High angle wraps provide targeted reinforcement and mitigate deflection

Miles of continuous fiberglass filament are coated in resin and spiral wrapped around revolving mandrels to create each of our lighting poles.

Whatley composite light poles are engineered and produced to be tough, durable and rust-proof.


Whatley's Corporate Mission

Whatley is committed to providing the highest standards of customer service and quality to our customers

Whatley will strive to develop long-term strategic partnerships with agents and customers seeking out cooperative ideas to improve products, marketing and manufacturing systems in order to remain competitive in the marketplace.  

Whatley will strive to develop an innovative approach to meeting customer and agents expectations providing new product introductions, and custom designs with future growth and expansion opportunities.  

Whatley will create a stimulating and challenging environment for our employees that provides for long-term professional growth.  

Whatley will educate and motivate an independent sales force to extol the virtues of composite lighting poles and lamp posts.




3550 Odessa Way, Suite A
Aurora · Colorado 80011


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Improve Your Game at Camp

Sports are FUN, but they are more fun when you get better! Our professional, passionate, and positive coaches will help your child become a better player and a more inspired athlete. Camp provides the perfect opportunity to improve skills, make new friends, laugh hard, and smile a lot.



Take Your Game to the Next Level!

Nike Tennis Camps provide young players the opportunity to improve their tennis game, work hard, make new friends and have a lot of fun. Our camps are directed by America's most respected college coaches and tennis professionals. They have a passion for teaching and a gift for helping you take your game to the next level.


US Sports Camps Mission Statement

To shape a lifelong enjoyment of athletics through high quality sports education and skill enhancement while consistently exceeding the expectations of our customers!


The official operator of Nike Sports Camps, US Sports Camps [USSC] was founded in 1975 with the same mission that defines it today. Now celebrating over forty [40] years of camp, USSC is headquartered in San Rafael, California [just north of San Francisco] and is America's largest sports camp network.

USSC partners with the country's best coaches to direct our camps and provides them with valuable administrative and marketing support. During the summer of 2014 more than seventy thousand [70,000] US and International Campers attended a US Sports Camps program.

USSC continues to grow thanks to an outstanding community of Camp Directors and the dedication of the entire USSC staff.

We expect 2015, our 41st year in business, to be our best year ever.











C27 484988



The Design Build Company was established circa 1986, and has successfully served a most demanding and quality conscience clientele for over thirty [30] years.

We service areas from Point Loma and La Jolla, all around Rancho Santa Fe, and along the north county coastal zones from Del Mar to Oceanside. We are state licensed in both Landscape architecture and Landscape contracting.

At the Design Build Company, we design and build relationships between the land and the architecture, and the natural materials and spaces that are defined by them. Relationships are weaved into each project; but ultimately, the relationships we build with our client during each job are the most sacred of them all!

Our designs respond to the conversation that your site and architecture initiate. We enhance your outdoor spaces through artistic use of both natural and contemporary manmade materials. We balance unique and creative planting composition against hardscape elements that "respect" the architecture.

Ultimately, it is a profound respect for you—the client, your family the human being(s) that will use the outdoor spaces—that is paramount to every space we help to Design and Build.




Founder and President

Robert Hill, RLA, founder and president of The Design Build Company, has over thirty [30] years of experience, and has been in private practice in California since 1986. Robert is licensed both as a landscape architect and as a landscape contractor.

Robert, or “Rob” [as he likes to be called] is particularly well known in the Rancho Santa Fe area. For over thirty [30] years he has worked in the covenant where he has collaborated with the Rancho Santa Fe Art Jury and RSF Fire Dept. on numerous successful jobs with numerous successful architects.


Principal Landscape Architect

Mark Leone, RLA, partner’s with Rob as a principal landscape architect to coordinate the entire design process. He brings twenty [20] years of experience to the table, and has designed projects all over San Diego County with client satisfaction as the ultimate goal.

Mark compliments Rob’s old school hand drawing techniques by providing CAD and 3D color representations of their design vision for each project.




We have the power, experience and personnel to meet the needs of any project—no matter the size—while still upholding the human and personal experience with you, the client.

Our team of professionals includes a full staff of stone and brick masons, grading specialists, carpenters, landscapers, designers and architects. The company has employees that have stayed the course for over twenty-five [25] years.

We build everything—with in house personnel only sub contracting when we absolutely need to.  This control we have allows us to make promises and keep them.

We consistently receive positive reviews from our clients on popular consumer review websites, such as, and we thank you for your kind feedback.



Robert Hill

RLA #2604
Founder, The Design Build Company

Mark Leone
RLA #5724
Principal Landscape Architect

C27 484988

Post Office Box 231447
Encinitas · California 92023

760.722.9306 Corporate · 760.722.9307 Facsimile 


Offsite Web Presence











IRONSMITH has been designing, engineering and fabricating tree grates, trench grates and bollards under the IRONSMITH banner for over thirty [30] years.


In 1984 IRONSMITH was the first tree grate manufacturer to produce a 1/4" slot opening width tree grate. IRONSMITH developed the Starburst Series 1 and Series 2 in response to requests from Las Vegas hotels for a grate that would not trap ladies spike high heel shoes. Five [5] years later the Americans with Disabilities Act [ADA] was passed and IRONSMITH removed all grates with slots over 1/2" from our product line to promote improved safety for all pedestrians.

Since switching 100% to small slot opening models we have developed sixteen [16] styles in over thirty [30] different shapes and sizes and we are adding to the line continually.

If you don't find exactly what you are looking for we are happy to create it for you.








A bollard is a short vertical post. Originally it meant a post used on a ship or a quay, principally for mooring.

The word now also describes a variety of structures to control or direct road traffic, such as posts arranged in a line to obstruct the passage of motor vehicles. The term can also be used to describe short, post-like light fixtures.


Bollard Etymology

The term is probably related to bole, meaning a tree trunk.

The earliest citation given by the Oxford English Dictionary [referring to a maritime bollard] dates from 1844, though a reference in the Caledonian Mercury in 1817 describes bollards as huge posts. Previously, simpler terms such as "post" appear to have been used. The Norman-French name Boulard [still often found in Normandy] may be related.


Brief Bollard History

From the 17th and 18th centuries, old cannon were often used as bollards on quaysides to help moor ships alongside. The cannon would be buried in the ground muzzle-first to approximately half or two-thirds of their length, leaving the breech [rear end] projecting above the ground for the attachment of ropes. Such cannon can still occasionally be found. 19th-century bollards were purpose-made, but often inherited a very similar "cannon" shape.

Wooden posts were used for basic traffic management from at least the beginning of the 18th century. An early well-documented case is that of the "two oak-posts" set up next to the medieval Eleanor Cross at Waltham Cross, Hertfordshire, in 1721, at the expense of the Society of Antiquaries of London, "to secure Waltham Cross from injury by Carriages". Similar posts can be seen in many historic paintings and engravings.

In the Netherlands, the Amsterdammertjes of Amsterdam were first erected in the 19th century. They became popular symbols of the city, but they are now gradually being removed and replaced with elevated sidewalks.


Representational Traffic Bollards

According to the Traffic Calming Organization [TCO], bollards can be used, either to control traffic intake size by limiting movements, or to control traffic speed by narrowing the available space. Israel's Transportation Research Institute found that putting bollards at highway exits to control traffic also reduced accidents.

Permanent bollards intended for traffic-control purposes may be mounted near enough to each other that they block ordinary cars, for instance, but spaced widely enough to permit special-purpose vehicles and bicycles to pass through. Bollards may also be used to enclose Car-Free Zones.

Bollards and other street furniture are used to control overspill parking onto sidewalks and verges.

Tall (1.15 meter/4 foot) slim (10 cm/4 inch) fluorescent red or orange plastic bollards with reflective tape and removable heavy rubber bases are frequently used in road traffic control where traffic cones would be inappropriate due to their width and ease of movement. Also referred to as "delineators", the bases are usually made from recycled rubber, and can be easily glued to the road surface to resist movement following minor impacts from passing traffic.

The term "T-top bollards" refers to the T-bar moulded into the top for tying tape. Bollards are regarded as an economical and safe delineation system for motorways and busy arterial roads; and, in conjunction with plastic tape, for pedestrian control.

Traffic bollards used in the United States are very similar to devices found throughout the United Kingdom, with the following exceptions: The traffic bollard shell displays the MUTCD [Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices] "Keep Right" symbol [R4-7]. In addition, the traffic bollard also has a yellow diamond below the "Keep Right" symbol instead of a yellow shield.

Unlike many existing traffic bollards found in the UK, most new modern traffic bollards installed along roadways today are made of materials that make them completely collapsible. When struck by a vehicle at low or high speed, the traffic bollard shell reverts to its original position with minimal to no damage to the unit.


Representational Illuminated Bollards

Internally illuminated traffic bollards have been in existence throughout the United Kingdom since the 1930s, although the term "bollard" only seems to have been in common use since the late 1940s. An illuminated bollard has a recessed base light unit in the foundation which illuminates the traffic bollard from all angles.

The main components are housed below the surface of the improvement [typically a concrete surface]. Therefore, if a vehicle strikes the traffic bollard, the units below the surface are not damaged.

They are primarily used at roundabout intersections within the splitter islands; a raised or painted area on the approach of a roundabout used to separate entering from exiting traffic, deflect and slow entering traffic, and provide a stopping place for pedestrians crossing the road in two stages, and at the ends of pedestrian refuge islands, typically located at mid-block pedestrian crosswalks.

Illuminated bollards are also used in Hong Kong, a former British colony.

Illuminated bollards are also used to supplement street signs and street lighting to provide a visual cue to approaching drivers that an obstacle exists ahead during hours of darkness and during periods of low visibility; fog, rain, snow, haze, etc., and to indicate that braking may be required.

Reflective Bollards may also be used; they need no power or maintenance, and can be built to recover to their normal position after being struck.


Representational Removable Bollards

Bollards may be hinged at ground level, allowing them to be folded flat to permit vehicles to drive over them. In such cases they are generally fitted with padlocks at the base, to prevent their being lowered without proper authorization.

Removable bollards may be fitted into a permanent metal ground socket, from which they may be removed entirely to allow traffic to pass, or when not required. A polypropylene ground socket is also available that protects the paving and foundations from damage when the bollard is struck. This design uses a self-locking taper to enable bollards to be easily removed and relocated.

Retractable or "rising" bollards can be lowered entirely below the road surface (generally using an electric or hydraulic mechanism) to enable traffic to pass, or raised to block traffic. Rising bollards are used to secure sensitive areas from attack, or to enforce traffic rules that are time related, or to restrict access to particular classes of traffic.

Manually retractable bollards [lowered by a key mechanism] are found useful in some cases since they do not require retrofitting into existing landscapes, or any electrical hookups or hydraulic systems.

The term "robotic bollards" has been applied to traffic barricades capable of moving themselves into position on a roadway.

Self-righting or self-recovering bollards can take a nudge from a vehicle and return to the upright position without causing damage to the bollard or vehicle. They are popular in car park buildings and other areas of high vehicle usage.


Representational Protective Bollards

Bollards are used throughout heavy industry and in commercial building management to protect assets. They usually consist of a simple steel post either anchored to concrete, cored into a hard surface, buried in the ground or secured on a Self-locking Taper or Impact Recovery System protecting the surrounding foundations from damage when a bollard is impacted.

These bollards protect utilities, electronics, machinery, buildings, or pedestrians from accidental collisions by vehicles, including passenger vehicles, transport trucking, and fork lifts. As collisions can cause damage to vehicles, operators, or the bollards themselves, new bollards have been developed that absorb some of the impact energy, lessening the violence of the collision. Some are made of forgiving plastics while others are made of steel but fitted with an elastomer to absorb the impact energy.

Bollards are widely used to contribute to safety and security.

The American Bar Association [ABA] state that bollards are used to contribute to homeland security. The NIBS’s site—the Whole Building Design Guide [WBDG]—recommends in its Design Guidance that open spaces surrounding and contiguous to buildings be included as integral parts of a security design.





41-701 Corporate Way # 3
Palm Desert · California 92260

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Commercial + Institutional Timberwork

Structural timber is incorporated with dramatic effect in the design of churches, libraries and places of public assembly. We work with architects and contractors to ensure the seamless integration of these timber elements into the overall design. This work can be accomplished with the use of full or partial timber framing as needed.  Heavy timber design elements help to produce dramatic effects in these often open and otherwise typical spaces.



Architectural Timber and Millwork, in close association with design professionals and contractors, does the work of both a timber frame fabricator and an installation contractor. 

Since its establishment in 1972, Architectural Timber has helped push the evolution of the heavy timber construction industry forward through the introduction of new design, fabrication & installation concepts.  In-house production of custom made flooring and other architectural millwork, such as paneling and stair parts, allows Architectural Timber the ability to address a full range of woodworking functions. 

With over 13,000 square feet of heated shop space our facility provides a safe and comfortable work environment that encourages quality work.

Design optimization, with a focus on precise execution of plans, provides for client satisfaction and outstanding end products.  This attention to  detail  makes us well suited for the highly complex and exacting projects presented here.  The images included in this website represent a partial collection of work completed by Architectural Timber and Millwork during our forty [40] years in business.







Tables and Countertops

Included as a complementary highlight to heavy timbers, wood tables and counter tops can tie together room elements such as ceilings, floors, or wall panelings with warmth of natural materials.


Timber Profile Sanding

Architectural Timber recognized a need for a machine that can accurately shape timber to pattern without the risk of tear out from routing or shaping against grain changes or the irregularities in contour which are difficult to avoid in hand sanding of complex shapes.  We built a profile sander that can produce fair curves in surfaces up to 15" wide, with radii as tight as 1 1/2". 






49 Mt. Warner Road  · Post Office Box 719

  Hadley · Massachusetts   01035.0719
Toll Free: 800.430.5473 Toll Free  ·   413.586.3045 Corporate  · 413.586.3046 Facsimile


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FX Luminaire is an industry-leading manufacturer of landscape and architectural lighting products with a focus on the advancement of LED Landscape Lighting technology and digital lighting control with zoning, dimming and color adjustment capabilities.





A Hunter Industries Company

FX Luminaire is an industry-leading manufacturer of landscape and architectural lighting products with a focus on the advancement of LED technology and digital lighting control with zoning, dimming and color adjustment capabilities. FX Luminaire offers a full spectrum of highly efficient lighting fixtures that may be utilized to create elegant cutting edge landscape lighting systems for commercial or residential application. FX Luminaire products are available exclusively via an extensive professional distributor network.

FX Luminaire has been in operation since the 1980's. WeFX Luminaire has earned a reputation as a leading producer of high quality, high efficiency lighting products through a deep commitment to innovating landscape and architectural lighting through LED efficiency and durable material combinations.

FX Luminaire is a division of Hunter Industries, one of the world’s leading manufacturers of irrigation products. Being a part of the Hunter Family of Businesses gives FX access to a deep corporate infrastructure with a global reach, significant funding for research and development, and a world-renowned customer support system.




Representational Site Security & Directional Control Lighting Application

In the field of Physical Security, Security Lighting is often used as a Preventive and Corrective measure against intrusions or other criminal activity on a physical piece of property.

Security lighting may be provided to aid in the detection of intruders, to deter intruders, or in some cases simply to increase the feeling of safety. Lighting is integral to crime prevention through environmental design.



Site Planning Applications & Design Considerations


Security lighting can be counter-productive. Turning off lights halved the number of thefts and burglary in Övertorneå Sweden.

A test in West Sussex UK showed that adding all-night lighting in some areas made people there feel safer, although crime rates increased fifty-five [55%] percent in those areas compared to control areas and to the county as a whole.


In the early seventies, the public-school system in San Antonio, Texas, began leaving many of its school buildings, parking lots, and other property dark at night and found that the no-lights policy not only reduced energy costs but also dramatically cut vandalism.

Bright, unshielded floodlights often prevent people from noticing criminal activity, and help criminals see what they are doing.

While adequate lighting around a physical structure is deployed to reduce the risk of an intrusion, it is critical that the lighting be designed carefully as poorly arranged lighting can create glare which actually obstructs vision. Studies have shown that many criminals are aware of this effect and actively exploit it. The optimal design will also depend on whether the area will be watched directly by humans or by closed-circuit television, and on the location of the observers or cameras.

Security Lighting may be subject to vandalism, possibly to reduce its effectiveness for a subsequent intrusion attempt. Thus security lights should either be mounted very high, or else protected by wire mesh or tough polycarbonate shields. Other lamps may be completely recessed from view and access, with the light directed out through a light pipe or reflected from a polished aluminum or stainless steel mirror. For similar reasons high security installations may provide a stand-by power supply for their security lighting.



Prototypical Design Considerations


Shielded or Full Cut-Off [FCO] Lamp Housings which conceal the bulb could be used, which should direct light onto the ground or target and away from observers. These lights should send no light above eighty [80] degrees from the nadir.

Lighting should be bright enough, and not "as bright as possible". In many cases a good rule of thumb is 0.5 watts per square metre [0.05 watts per square foot]. This might need to be increased in very confused environments, but conversely can be reduced in very open environments.

Multiple lamps of moderate power instead of a few powerful lamps will reduce glare, provide more even illumination with reduced pools of shadow, and provide some redundancy if one lamp's bulb blows out or develops a bad ballast.

Prevent malicious tampering or interference. This means that besides the lamp itself, the entire circuit from the source [electric company or generator], through the wires, to the lamp and back should be protected.

Luminaires should be accessible so that the maintainer can replace blown bulbs as quickly as possible and clean the luminaires periodically. However they should be protected or somehow made inaccessible to tampering.

Ensure the electric meter box is locked or inaccessible, or else power the lights from a different line.

Control and power lines, where outside or vulnerable, should be either buried well underground [in conduits preferably] or at a height of at least eight [8m] metres about twenty-four [24'] feet.

Ideally multiple circuits should be used to prevent an accidental or malicious short or cut causing all illumination to fail.


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FX Luminaire is proud to introduce the Luxor® LAN Module [P/N FXLANMOD], a consistent, reliable, and universal way to connect Luxor® controllers to the home network router. It replaces the Luxor Wi-Fi Module and antenna connection for installations where...


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FX Luminaire announces the release of the new BQ. The BQ illuminates grilling areas with bright 1 LED task lighting. Designed to withstand the elements, the BQ is made of 304 stainless steel and mounts directly into the outdoor counter surface material....




Security lighting can be used in residential, commercial, industrial, institutional, and military settings. Some examples of security lighting include floodlights and low pressure sodium vapor lights. Most lights intended to be left on all night are high-intensity discharge lamps as these have good energy efficiency, thus reducing the cost of running a lamp for such long periods.

A disadvantage of low pressure sodium lamps is that the color is pure yellow, so the illuminated scene is seen without any color differentiation. Consequently high pressure sodium vapor lamps [which are still yellowish, but closer to golden white] are also used, at the cost of greater running expenses and increased light pollution. High pressure sodium lamps also take slightly longer to restrike after a power interruption.

Other lights may be activated by sensors such as Passive Infrared Sensors [PIRs], turning on only when a person [or other mammal] approaches. PIR Activated Lamps will usually be incandescent bulbs so that they can activate instantly; energy saving is less important since they will not be on all the time.

PIR sensor activation can increase both the deterrent effect [since the intruder knows that he has been detected] and the detection effect [since a person will be attracted to the sudden increase in light]. Some PIR units can be set up to sound a chime as well as turn on the light. Most modern units have a photocell so that they only turn on when it is dark.

Site Security Limitations

An important limitation to the usefulness of security lighting is the simple fact that it is only useful at night. This is particularly significant for home owners because, contrary to a widespread myth, most household burglaries occur during the day, when the occupants are away at work or shopping.

As with any lighting, security lighting can reduce night vision, making it harder to see into areas that are unlit or are in shadow.



U.S.A. Headquarters
1940 Diamond Street · San Marcos · California 92078
760.744.5240 Corporate · 760.744.7461 Facsimile

Technical Support / Product Inquiry 760.591.7383

FX Luminaire is a Division of Hunter Industries
The World’s Leading Manufacturers of Irrigation Products



Environmental Design + Site Engineering

Environmental Design + Site Planning [ED+SP] is the process of addressing surrounding environmental parameters when devising plans, programs, policies, buildings, or products. Classical prudent design may have always considered environmental factors; however, the environmental movement beginning in the 1940s has made the concept more explicit.


ED+SP can also refer to the applied arts and sciences dealing with creating the human-designed environment. These fields include architecture, geography, urban planning, landscape architecture, and interior design.

ED+SP can also encompass interdisciplinary areas such as historical preservation and lighting design.

In terms of a larger scope, ED+SP has implications for the industrial design of products: innovative automobiles, wind-electricity generators, solar-electric equipment, and other kinds of equipment could serve as examples.

Currently, the ED+SP "term" has expanded to apply to Ecological and Sustainability issues.


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Representational Systems Integration


In engineering, system integration is defined as the process of bringing together the component subsystems into one system and ensuring that the subsystems function together as a system.



In Information Technology [IT], systems integration is the process of linking together different computing systems and software applications physically or functionally, to act as a coordinated whole.

The System Integrator [SI] brings together discrete systems utilizing a variety of techniques such as computer networking, Enterprise Application Integration [EAI], Business Process Management [BPM] or manual programming.

A system is an aggregation of subsystems cooperating so that the system is able to deliver the overarching functionality. System integration involves integrating existing often disparate systems.

System integration [SI] is also about adding value to the system, capabilities that are possible because of interactions between subsystems.

In today’s connected world, the role of System Integration Engineers [SIE] is important: more and more systems are designed to connect, both within the system under construction and to systems that are already deployed.




Representational Methods of Integration

Vertical Integration [VI], as opposed to "Horizontal Integration" [HI] is the process of integrating subsystems according to their functionality by creating functional entities also referred to as silos. The benefit of this method is that the integration is performed quickly and involves only the necessary vendors, therefore, this method is cheaper in the short term.

On the other hand, cost-of-ownership can be substantially higher than seen in other methods, since in case of new or enhanced functionality, the only possible way to implement [scale the system) would be by implementing another silo. Reusing subsystems to create another functionality is not possible.

Star Integration [StI], also known as Spaghetti Integration [SpI] is a process of systems integration where each system is interconnected to each of the remaining subsystems. When observed from the perspective of the subsystem which is being integrated, the connections are reminiscent of a star, but when the overall diagram of the system is presented, the connections look like spaghetti, hence the name of this method. The cost varies because of the interfaces that subsystems are exporting. In a case where the subsystems are exporting heterogeneous or proprietary interfaces, the integration cost can substantially rise. Time and costs needed to integrate the systems increase exponentially when adding additional subsystems. From the feature perspective, this method often seems preferable, due to the extreme flexibility of the reuse of functionality.

Horizontal integration [HI] or Enterprise Service Bus [ESB] is an integration method in which a specialized subsystem is dedicated to communication between other subsystems. This allows cutting the number of connections [interfaces] to only one [1] per subsystem which will connect directly to the ESB.

The ESB is capable of translating the interface into another interface. This allows cutting the costs of integration and provides extreme flexibility. With systems integrated using this method, it is possible to completely replace one [1] subsystem with another subsystem which provides similar functionality but exports different interfaces, all this completely transparent for the rest of the subsystems. The only action required is to implement the new interface between the ESB and the new subsystem.

The horizontal scheme can be misleading, however, if it is thought that the cost of intermediate data transformation or the cost of shifting responsibility over business logic can be avoided.

A Common Data Format [CDF] is an integration method to avoid every adapter having to convert data to / from every other applications' formats, Enterprise Application integration [EAI] systems usually stipulate an application-independent [or common] data format.

The EAI system usually provides a data transformation service as well to help convert between application-specific and common formats. This is done in two [2] steps: the adapter converts information from the application's format to the bus's common format. Then, semantic transformations are applied on this i.e. converting zip codes to city names, splitting / merging objects from one application into objects in the other applications, and so on.


Representational Enterprise Application Integration

Enterprise Application Integration [EAI] is an integration framework composed of a collection of technologies and services which form a middleware to enable integration of systems and applications across an enterprise.

Many types of business software such as Supply Chain Management [SCM] applications, ERP Systems, CRM Applications for managing customers, Business Intelligence Applications [BIA], payroll and Human Resources [HR] Systems typically cannot communicate with one another in order to share data or business rules. For this reason, such applications are sometimes referred to as Islands of Automation [IoA] or Information Silos [InfoSi].

This lack of communication leads to inefficiencies, wherein identical data are stored in multiple locations, or straightforward processes are unable to be automated.

Enterprise Application Integration [EAI] is the process of linking such applications within a single organization together in order to simplify and automate business processes to the greatest extent possible, while at the same time avoiding having to make sweeping changes to the existing applications or data structures. Applications can be linked either at the Back-End [database] or the Front-End.

In the words of the Gartner Group, EAI is the "unrestricted sharing of data and business processes among any connected application or data sources in the enterprise."


The various systems that need to be linked together may reside on different Operating Systems, use different database solutions or computer languages, or different date and time formats, or may be Legacy Systems [LSys] that are no longer supported by the vendor who originally created them. In some cases, such systems are dubbed "Stovepipe Systems" [StvSys] because they consist of components that have been jammed together in a way that makes it very hard to modify them in any way.


Representational Communication Architecture

Currently, there are many variations of thought on what constitutes the best infrastructure, component model, and standards structure for Enterprise Application Integration [EAI]. There seems to be consensus that four [4] components are essential for a modern enterprise application integration architecture:


A centralized broker that handles security, access, and communication. This can be accomplished through integration servers, i.e. the School Interoperability Framework [SIF] Zone Integration Servers [SIFZIS] or through similar software like the Enterprise Service Bus [ESB] model that acts as a SOAP-Oriented Services Manager.


An Independent Data Model [IDM] based on a standard data structure, also known as a Canonical Data Model [CDM]. It appears that XML and the use of XML style Sheets has become the de facto and in some cases de jure standard for this Uniform Business Language [UBL].


A connector, or agent model where each vendor, application, or interface can build a single component that can speak natively to that application and communicate with the Centralized Broker [CB].


A system model that defines the APIs, data flow and rules of engagement to the system such that components can be built to interface with it in a standardized way.


Although other approaches like connecting at the database or user-interface level have been explored, they have not been found to scale or be able to adjust. Individual applications can publish messages to the centralized broker and subscribe to receive certain messages from that broker. Each application only requires one connection to the broker. This central control approach can be extremely scalable and highly evolvable.


Enterprise Application Integration [EAI] is related to middleware technologies such as Message-Oriented Middleware ([OM], and data representation technologies such as XML. Other EAI technologies involve using Web Services [WS] as part of Service-Oriented Architecture [SOA] as a means of integration. Enterprise Application Integration [EAI] tends to be data centric. In the near future, it will come to include Content Integration and Business Processes.


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PAVERART is an innovative design and manufacturing firm that specializes in the creation and manufacturing of artwork for the interlocking paver medium.

PAVERART recognized that limited design options were available to consumers and project designers who wanted to beautify and distinguish their paver projects. PAVERART developed a new, patented process whereby intricate and durable designs could be manufactured for easy installation into a field of pavers.

To achieve its vibrant and durable images, PAVERART uses only high-quality, concrete colored pavers which are manufactured using a pigmentation process. No paints or stains are used to create specific artwork.

PAVERART designs, large and small, have been installed throughout the United States – from the Flamingo Hotel in Las Vegas to the Camden Aquarium in New Jersey to private homes in Florida.

For residential clients, PAVERART offers a catalog / kit and accent options and custom design services which range from black silhouettes to heavily embellished multi-color designs. For commercial, municipal and institutional projects, PAVERART offer a custom design solution that will translate project concept onto a paver canvas.


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Across the country, groups are earning huge profits with engraved paver fundraisers.

Any type of organization, large or small can succeed with engraved brick fundraising. Community members, friends, family and more will be eager to buy pavers in support of your worthy cause!


When you choose Paverart as your "Engraved Brick Fundraising Partner" [EBFP], you’ll quickly find out that our paver programs help you raise a lot more money for your organization than most other engraved brick companies do!





In Site Development, including elements of landscaping, Hardscape refers to the built environment including paved areas like streets and sidewalks, structures, walls, street amenities, pools and fountains, and fireplaces and firepits.

Also, large business complexes, housing developments, highways, and other industrial areas where the upper soil profile is no longer exposed to the air but is covered with durable materials. The term is especially used in heavily urbanized or suburban areas with little bare soil.

Brief Hardscape Features Description

Typical small-scale hardscaping examples include patios and sidewalks.

Retaining walls are often used to create boundaries between hardscapes and earth landscaping features, or softscapes. From an urban planning perspective, hardscapes can include very large features, such as paved roads and traffic circles or traffic islands.

Most artificial water features are technically hardscapes because they require a barrier to retain the water, instead of letting it drain into the surrounding soil.

From an aesthetic perspective, hardscaping allows workers to erect landscaping features that would otherwise be impossible due to soil erosion, or that compensate for large amounts of human traffic that would cause wear on bare earth or grass. For example, sheer vertical features are possible.

Hardscape means any hard surface landscape such as a patio, driveway, retaining wall, or any other hard surface landscaping made up of hard wearing materials such as stone, concrete etc. as opposed to soft landscaping which is grass, bark and other such items.


Brief Impervious Surfaces Discussion

Impervious surfaces are mainly artificial structures—such as pavements[roads, sidewalks, driveways and parking lots] that are covered by impenetrable materials such as asphalt, concrete, brick, stone—and rooftops.

Soils compacted by urban development are also highly impervious.

Homer and others [2007] indicate that about seventy-six [76%] percent of the conterminous United States is classified as having less than one [1%] percent impervious cover, eleven [11%] percent as having an impervious cover of one [1%] percent to ten [10%] percent, four [4%] percent of the nation as having an estimated impervious cover of eleven [11%] percent to twenty [20%] percent, four point four [4.4%] percent of the nation as having an estimated impervious cover of twenty-one [21%] percent to forty [40%] percent, and about four point four [4.4%] percent of the nation as having an estimated impervious cover greater than forty [40%] percent.

The total coverage by impervious surfaces in an area, such as a municipality or a watershed is usually expressed as a percentage of the total land area. The coverage increases with rising urbanization. In rural areas, impervious cover may only be one [1%] percent or two [2%] percent.

In residential areas, coverage increases from about ten [10%] percent in low-density subdivisions to over fifty [50%] percent in multi-family communities. In industrial and commercial areas, coverage rises above seventy [70%] percent. In regional shopping centers and dense urban areas, it is over ninety [90%] percent.

In the contiguous forty-eight [48] states of the United States, urban impervious cover adds up to forty-three thousand [43,000 sq. m] square miles [110,000 km²] — an area nearly the size of the State of Ohio.

Continuing development adds another quarter of a million [250,000] acres [1,000 km²] each year. Typically two-thirds [2/3rds] of the cover is pavements and one-third [1/3rd] is building roofs.


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Site Development Drainage Considerations

The water table in and around large areas of hardscape is usually very depleted because the amount of rainwater absorbed into the soil is insufficient to recharge the water table in that [usually urban] area. Such areas must then rely largely on "imported" freshwater from local or non-local lakes, reservoirs, dams, rivers, and streams.

On the other hand, most homes in rural areas often use wells and springs as their primary source of freshwater because the local water table is being constantly recharged by the hydrologic cycle.

Without nearby bare soil, a hardscape requires artificial methods of drainage or surface runoff in order to carry off the sometimes massive volumes of water that would normally be mostly absorbed into the ground as groundwater. Lack of capacity can cause major problems after severe thunderstorms, hurricanes, or typhoons.




Paverart’s Elements Collection is inspired by Old World architectural elements. These design kits combine subtle color combinations with tumbled concrete pavers to achieve a rich and classic look. You can now enhance your outdoor flooring to complement the beauty and style of your home. Paverart’s elegant designs will convert your new or existing terrace into a unique, warm and inviting outdoor living space. Custom designs are also available.

The Elements Collection kits are preassembled and palletized for quick and easy installation. The collection includes designs that are available in a wide variety of shapes, sizes and color combinations. Custom design options are also available. All kits are fabricated from high quality concrete pavers.



Representational Mitigation of Environmental Impacts

Impervious surface coverage can be limited by restricting land use density [such as number of homes per acre in a subdivision], but this approach causes land elsewhere [outside the subdivision] to be developed, to accommodate growing population. Alternatively, urban structures can be built differently to make them function more like naturally pervious soils; examples of such alternative structures are porous pavements, green roofs and infiltration basins.

Rainwater from impervious surfaces can be collected in Rainwater Harvesting Reservoirs / Tanks [RWHR] and used in place of main water.

Partly in response to recent criticism by municipalities, a number of concrete manufacturers such as CEMEX and Quikrete have begun producing permeable materials which partly mitigate the environmental impact of conventional impervious concrete. These new materials are composed of various combinations of naturally derived solids including fine to coarse-grained rocks and minerals, organic matter [including living organisms], ice, weathered rock and precipitates, liquids primarily water solutions, and gases.


Percentage Imperviousness (PIMP) Discussion

The percentage imperviousness, often referred to as PIMP in calculations, is an important factor when considering drainage of water.

It is calculated by measuring the percentage of a catchment area which is made up of impervious surfaces such as roads, roofs and other paved surfaces. An estimation of PIMP is given by PIMP = 6.4J^0.5 where J is the number of dwellings per hectare [Butler and Davies 2000].

For example, woodland has a PIMP value of ten [10%] percent, whereas dense commercial areas have a PIMP value of one hundred [100%] percent. This variable is used in the Flood Estimation Handbook.



The Most Exciting New Product Line Ever to Bless the Site Development Industry





2 Egg Harbor Road · Unit C · Lindenwold · New Jersey 08021

856.783.7000 Corporate Contact · 856.783.7033 Facsimile



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Taking ideas from imagination to the site. That’s what has made Sitecraft the Architect’s choice for four [4] generations. Along the way, they’ve distinguished themselves as the only craftsmen who have mastered cutting curves out of solid wood. Sitecraft has built on this mastery to include custom designs in metal and stone, resulting in an unmatched repertoire that not only complements, but defines your site.

Premium materials, handcrafted attention to detail found only in the finest bench made furniture, and enduring quality are the signature of Sitecraft, the tangible expression of your unique vision.




Parklands Connectivity and Site Flexibility

Connect spaces physically and visually. Make spaces in the outdoor / parkland area relate to each other by interlocking the foundational elements.

Locate different kinds of activities in close proximity so parkland users can observe the action, comment on it, and develop a desire to participate. Create flexible and intimate spaces for different levels of engagement and social interaction.

As with interior common spaces, the ability to control social interaction and privacy is important in outdoor spaces, such as garden zones and courtyard / atrium zones. Allow for individual choice of activities, such as providing outdoor areas that simultaneously enable both solitary, quiet activities [e.g., people and bird watching] and social, group activities.

Outdoor spaces may be segmented into smaller areas with outdoor furnishings, planters, retaining walls, hardscape and softscape landscape improvements.

The placement of semi-private niches and seating off the side of the main pedestrian thoroughfare encourages use of courtyards for social engagement. Gradual transitions between
public and private areas of outdoor spaces promote psychological ease-of-use.

Creating both passive and active recreational opportunities accommodates parkland visitors’ varying needs and preferences.

Consider including features [e.g., feeders] that attract birds, particularly songbirds, engaging parkland visitors who want to tend to the birds.







40-25 Crescent Street · Long Island City · New York 11101

Tel: 800.937.0203 Corporate · 718.482.0661 Facsimile

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Ferandell Tennis Courts, serving all of California since 1976, is an experienced, high-quality tennis court contractor.

Paul Ferandell has been involved in tennis court design and construction for over thirty-five [35] years, stands by his work and takes pride in meeting the design, scheduling, and budgetary requirements of his clients.


Ferandell works with clients on all aspects of court design and construction.

The talented and qualified staff can design your tennis court and present you with options regarding lighting, fencing, windscreens, net poles, nets, court surfaces, and court color. Ferandell can also work off a pre-existing design and provide you with suggestions on how to modify or implement it to your liking.

Ferandell controls all aspects of court construction, ensuring that you get the highest quality product and service available. Ferandell will finish your court with a surface to suit your specific playing requirements. And, they will build your new game courts anywhere you want them!



Tennis is played on a rectangular flat surface, usually of grass, clay or hard material.

The dimensions of a tennis court are defined and regulated by the International Tennis Federation (ITF) governing body and are written down in the annual 'Rules of Tennis' document.

The court is seventy-eight [78'] feet [23.77 metres] long. Its width is twenty-seven [27'] feet [8.23 metres] for singles matches and thirty-six [36'] feet [10.97 metres] for doubles matches.

The service line is twenty-one [21'] feet [6.40 metres] from the net. Additional clear space around the court is needed in order for players to reach overrun balls for a total of sixty [60'] feet [18 metres] wide and one hundred twenty [120'] feet [37 metres] long.

A net is stretched across the full width of the court, parallel with the baselines, dividing it into two [2] equal ends. The net is three feet six inches [3' 6"]  [1.07 metres] high at the posts, and three [3'] feet [0.91 metres] high in the center. The net posts are three [3'] feet [0.91 metres] outside the doubles court on each side or, for a singles net, three [3'] feet [0.91 metres] outside the singles court on each side.


DecoTurf© cushioned tennis court surfaces are regularly chosen for use at the world’s most prestigious events.  DecoTurf© Tennis Surfaces have been selected for the two [2] most recent Olympic Games, the US Open since 1978, the Emirates Airline US Open Series, the NCAA Championships and countless other notable venues around the world.

DecoTurf© has a well-established network of authorized applicators and distributors around the world.



DecoColor MP Classic 920-27


Classic 920-27 is a full bodied, high performance acrylic latex coating. It is fortified with specially selected fillers and is pigmented in eleven [11] standard colors. Special colors are possible upon request, however minimum quantities do apply. DecoColor MP Classic offers the advantage of using one product for the texture courses and the finish course.


DecoColor MP Classic is intended for use as a texture and / or top coat for recreational surfaces. Job mixing gives the installer the flexibility to meet individual job conditions.

The finish texture and speed of play can be modified through the size and amount of sand used in the mix. This product allows the contractor the flexibility to select and add the proper sand to meet specific job requirements.



Base Construction

Surface must meet or exceed the American Sport Builders Association [ASBA] applicable Guidelines. Upgrading and re-coating previously colored surfaces requires the surface and base construction to be in sound condition and in compliance with the applicable ASBA Guidelines

Surface Condition

The surface on which DecoColor is to be applied must be smooth, free of dirt, loose or flaking paint, oily materials or chemical residues, vegetation of any sort and any other debris or foreign matter that may prevent the proper product adhesion.

Thoroughly rout existing cracks of dirt, debris and loose impediments. Cracks should be blown clean with an air compressor. Consult the data sheet 64061 Deco Crack Filler for application information.

Surface Imperfections

Before application of primers or Acrylic Re-surfacer, the court surface shall be flooded with water and allowed to drain. Any depressions capable of submerging a U.S. five-cent piece after one [1] hour should be marked with chalk, not crayon or a grease pencil.

These areas must be allowed to thoroughly dry.

Once dried, a patch must be applied to the marked area. For patching products and mix designs, please refer to the product data sheet for Acrylic PatchBinder 920-39.


Surface Priming

Priming of asphalt surfaces is only necessary if existing asphalt is too badly weathered to establish a strong bond with the Acrylic Resurfacer. In the case of extremely oxidized asphalt surfaces, contact your Deco Area Manager. When applying Acrylic Resurfacer to new concrete surfaces, a primer is necessary to improve adhesion. Deco Surfacing Systems offers California Ti-Coat 63903 & 63904, a two- package water based epoxy primer. Consult the respective data sheets for proper application.


System Recommendation

Two [2] texture course applications and one [1] finish course has proven to give excellent performance results.

Deco recommends the use of Acrylic Resurfacer 920-29 prior to the application of DecoColor. See the data sheet on Acrylic Resurfacer for more information.


Using a flexible rubber squeegee, 50 or 70 durometer, apply DecoColor MP Mix parallel to one [1] of the sides of the area to be coated. Care should be taken not to leave ridges where adjoining applications overlap. Applications in hot conditions are improved by keeping surface damp with a fine mist water spray. No pooling should be allowed. Additional applications should be installed at 90° to the previous application.

Drying and Cure Time

DecoColor MP must be allowed to dry for 4 [4] hours between coating applications. Completed projects should be allowed twenty-four [24] hours before releasing to play.



Concrete Preparer is especially formulated acid etching pre-treatment for previously uncoated Portland Cement Concrete that requires no after-wash. Concrete Preparer is self-neutralizing, and prepares the surface to receive the Deco Surfacing Systems by forming a water-insoluble reaction in the surface of the concrete.

This surface reaction creates a barrier to reduce the osmotic effect of water vapor and moisture which can create blisters and destroy the bond between the Deco Coatings and the concrete substrate.



The use of Concrete Preparer does not preclude taking the normal precautions to prevent transmission of water vapor and moisture by installing a vapor barrier directly below the concrete and providing accurate drainage. Nor will this treatment prevent spalling, deterioration of defective concrete of low compressive strength, or improper curing, and cracking of concrete due to faulty mix or improper reinforcing steel.


The uncoated concrete surface shall be clean, dry, and free of dirt, dust, mud, oil, and all foreign matter. The surface must be free of all concrete curing compounds and hardeners. Scrub or vacuum to remove foreign matter, as required. To obtain the desired results, concrete should have a wood float or broom finish, not a steel trowel finish.


Dilute one [1] gallon of Concrete Preparer with four [4] gallons of clean water before using. Apply the material liberally to the concrete surface by pouring onto the surface and spread with a broom. Do not allow puddles. Rinsing is not necessary but all loose dust, dirt, etc. must be removed before the application of the acrylic surfacing system. Allow to dry thoroughly before coating with the acrylic surface systems.


Approximately seven hundred [700 sq. ft.] to nine hundred [900 sq. ft.] square feet per undiluted gallon.



Contains Phosphoric Acid and Zinc Chloride. Avoid contact with eyes and prolonged contact with skin. In case of contact, immediately flush skin or eyes with plenty of clean water for at least fifteen [15] minutes. Get prompt medical attention for eyes.




100% Acrylic Latex Coating for use on “Plexipave” or “DecoTurf” Acrylic Latex Recreation Surfaces.

Product No. 5.0600 Acrylic latex coating systems will not block iron oxidation. Crushed stone aggregate used to construct asphalt pavements and Portland cement concrete may contain iron and / or iron bearing compounds that can oxidize, resulting in surface pop-ups, rust spots and rust streaking. Tannin or rust-like stains from decomposing leaves or pine needles can also cause surface staining.

California Stain Block is a one hundred [100%] percent Acrylic Latex stain blocking primer used for new or coated asphalt or concrete surfaces that should be applied in two [2] coats, [a spot-prime and one full coat] to minimize the transfer of stains before re-coating with standard color topcoats.

The reason two layers are recommended is that staining will often bleed into the first layer [the “spot - prime”] and may be chemically blocked there and may not bleed into the second coat.

If new asphalt, apply Acrylic Resurfacer #920-29 4200 before the application of California Stain Block to improve the outcome and yield.




London Paralympic Tennis Event to be Played on DecoTurf

Published: August 27, 2012


Andover, MA – The organizers of the 2012 London Paralympic Tennis Event have chosen DecoColor as the new tennis court surface. The event will take place September 1-8 at Eton Manor, north of the London Olympic Park.

The new tennis venue at Eton Manor was the only facility constructed specifically for this year’s Paralympic Games, as the Olympic Tennis Events were played on grass courts. The brand new 10,500 seat venue features three show courts, nine competition courts and four practice courts.

The singles and doubles events will include 112 players from 31 countries competing for six gold medals. Esther Vergeer of the Netherlands is the top seed in the women’s singles as Shingo Kunieda of Japan will aim to keep his men’s singles title against France’s Stephane Houdet.

Sebastian Coe, The London Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games Chair said, “’Wheelchair Tennis has proved to be one of our most popular tickets, and the venue at Eton Manor will be a fantastic setting to showcase some truly world-class athletes.”

DecoTurf’s multi-layer tennis surfaces have been selected for use at the world’s most prestigious events including the US Open since 1978, the 2004 and 2008 Olympic Games, Davis Cup and Fed Cup matches, and at many of the finest facilities around the world. It is simply unmatched in providing a full depth resilient surface with precise speed control. The surface offers unique play characteristics, providing maximum player comfort, and exceptional durability. DecoTurf has authorized applicators around the globe that are trained to install the surface that is known for its, true ball bounce, low maintenance, vibrant long lasting colors, and overall customer value.




A Division of California Products Corporation
150 Dascomb Road · Andover · Massachusetts 01810 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
 800.332.6178 Corporate · 978.623.9960 Facsimile




Founded in 1945, Dalton Enterprises, Inc. is an expert in pavement maintenance and recreational coatings. The company, based in Cheshire, Connecticut is family owned and has satellite manufacturing / distribution locations throughout the country. Whether it’s consumer packaged products or commercial coatings, all of our products were first developed, applied and tested on federally specified jobs.

Plushcolor® recreational coatings are 100% Acrylic, high performance, non-fadingall-weather color systems for use on tennis, basketball and other recreational surfaces. Plushcolor® will adhere to asphalt, emulsified asphalt and suitable concrete surfaces (never before painted concrete must be properly prepped via acid etch and primed with E330). There are three key functions that provide the foundation to Pushcolor’s coatings: playability, durability and vibrant, fade resistant colors. The entire Plushcolor® line is Acrylic based and low VOC making them easier to clean and easier on the environment. PlushColor® and Acrylic Resurfacer are shipped in ‘concentrate’ form – sand and water to be added per specification sheet. Plushcolor® is shipped nationwide and worldwide from our network of locations.



Plush® 5-Gal. Acrylic Resurfacer is a non pigmented, 100% acrylic latex compound for new or previously sealed asphalt or portland cement/concrete tennis or basketball courts. It is designed for field mixing with silica sand and water to provide a fast drying, leveling and/or texture course. You can also use it as a leveling treatment for minor surface blemishes and/or “bird baths”.

Plush® 1 Gal. White Tennis Striping Paint is a heavily pigmented, high solid, 100% white acrylic paint. It is designed for use over asphalt or portand cement recreational surfaces. Plush® 1 Gal. Line Striping Paint is intended for line striping tennis, basketball, volleyball or any other recreational court surface.


Dalton Enterprises, Inc.
131 Willow Street Cheshire · Connecticut 06410

800.851.5606 / 203.272.3221 Corporate ·  203.271.3396 Facsimile

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2120 Jimmy Durante Boulevard · Suite 102 ·Del Mar · California 92014

800.900.1344 Corporate Contact


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From Oldcastle Precast, the leading manufacturer of precast concrete in the United States, comes the Storm Capture Total Stormwater Management System.

Whether your site needs a simple detention system to prevent storm drain overloading, a groundwater recharge system for low impact development, a stormwater treatment system to treat water quality, or a complete stormwater harvesting system, Storm Capture will provide your solutions.


How Stormwater Chambers are Modeled

In a HydroCAD model, stormwater modules [referred to as "Chambers" in HydroCAD] typically appear as part of the storage definition for a "pond".  In the simplest case, HydroCAD calculates the available storage for use with other calculations.  But more often, it is used to generate a complete inflow or runoff hydrograph and route it through the pond. 

The resulting analysis indicates the water levels attained throughout the rainfall event, as well as any discharge that may occur through outlet devices or infiltration into the surrounding ground.


Representational Flexible Storage Options

Each pond may include an unlimited number of storage definitions as required to describe its overall storage characteristics. 

This makes it easy to model complex storage arrangements, such as a combination of multiple chambers, pipe storage, catch basins, or other contributing volumes, including above-ground areas [parking lots] that may provide overflow storage for large events.  HydroCAD can also calculate the storage contribution from sand or gravel that surrounds the chambers.  Or the storage can be limited to the chamber itself.


Modeling Storm Capture Modules

Modeling Storm Capture systems is easy with the HydroCAD chamber wizard:  Just pick the desired module style [SC1 or SC2] and height from the drop-down list and set the total number of modules.

Note: Storm Capture modules will be found in the alphabetical chamber catalog under Oldcastle Storm Capture.

HydroCAD automatically allows for the solid outer wall in the perimeter modules and reduces the overall storage accordingly.  For modules on a stone bed, set the stone height and the void storage is automatically added to the module volume.  For the open-bottomed SC1 modules, the chamber wizard automatically sets a default stone bed of twelve [12"] inches, which can be adjusted as required.  For the solid-bottomed SC2 modules the stone bed defaults to zero.


If you wish to perform a complete hydrograph analysis you should also define your outlet devices, such as an overflow pipe or weir. 

For retention systems you can define an exfiltration outlet and you're ready to route your inflow hydrograph!




Understanding Exfiltration


"Exfiltration" refers to a loss of water from a drainage system as the result of percolation or absorption into the surrounding soil.  When performing a reach routing, a constant exfiltration (CFS) can be subtracted from the inflow hydrograph to account for these losses.  However, the more common (and recommended) technique, is to implement exfiltration within a "pond".


Three [3] Calculations Options Exhibit

HydroCAD Provides Three [3] Options for Calculating Pond Exfiltration


A constant flow can occur whenever a specified elevation is exceeded. For example, a drywell might exfiltrate 2.2 CFS when the level exceeds one hundred two [102'] feet.


A constant velocity can occur over an available area.  For example, an exfiltration rate of fifteen [15] mm/hour means that a water layer of 15mm will take one [1] hour to exfiltrate.  The available area can be based on either surface area or wetted area, and may exclude areas that lie above or below specified elevations.


You can specify the saturated hydraulic conductivity, and have the exfiltration calculated by Darcy's Law based on the distance to groundwater.  The available area can be based on either surface area or wetted area, and may exclude areas that lie above or below specified elevations. This option was added in HydroCAD-9.0.






Setting the Invert Elevation Application

By default, exfiltration will occur if there is any water in the pond.  But if the lower areas of the pond are impervious, you can select the option to "Allow Exfiltration Only Above Invert."  

This allows an effective invert elevation to be specified, and exfiltration will occur only when the water surface exceeds this level. When using the velocity method, exfiltration will apply only to any additional area lying above the invert.


Surface Area or Wetted Area?

By basing exfiltration on surface area you are stating that all flow will essentially be downward. Only horizontal areas [above the invert] are available for exfiltration. All vertical areas are excluded.

If you wish to include vertical surfaces, such as the sides of a drywell, then you may want to specify wetted area. As always, it is your responsibility to ensure that this computation is applicable to your particular situation.


Advanced Techniques

While most cases will require just a single exfiltration device, it is also possible to use several exfiltration devices on a single pond. This could be used to model multi-stage exfiltration schemes, such as a drywell that overflows into a perforated pipe.

As with all pond designs, you should view and understand the stage-discharge plot to make sure the pond is exhibiting the behavior you expect. Do not rely solely on a review of the hydrograph, since any problems in the stage-discharge relationship may not be apparent.


Representational Design Guidelines

While some systems may have enough exfiltration capacity to dispose of stormwater runoff as it occurs, many systems will take many hours or even days before a significant fraction of a rainfall event can be discharged through exfiltration.

Under these circumstances, exfiltration is not an effective means of short-term runoff management. These systems must have enough storage [detention] capacity to hold a large portion of the runoff volume over the longer time period that is required for complete exfiltration to occur.

A second consideration is that the infiltration capability of most sites can be expected to degrade over time. This can occur because of inadequate sediment removal before runoff reaches the exfiltration area,  and/or lack of proper maintenance.  Because of this likelihood, some stormwater management rules may not allow credit for exfiltration as part of the runoff analysis. 

This doesn't mean that stormwater systems shouldn't be designed with as much exfiltration capacity as possible - they should, if only to avoid depletion of groundwater after site development.  However, a conservative stormwater design will have sufficient capacity to handle the required events without any short-term exfiltration, allowing the detained volume to exfiltrate over an extended period time.



Using the Discharge Multiplier Methodologies

To determine the effects of reduced exfiltration capacity, you can reduce the appropriate "Discharge Multiplier" to a value less than "1".  You can even set the multiplier to zero [0] in order to "turn off" the exfiltration entirely.  Making these changes with the appropriate report window(s) open will let you immediately see the effects of each scenario.

Note: When using multiple storage chambers, the exfiltration velocity is applied to the total storage area, which already allows for the number of chambers.  Do not increase the discharge multiplier in these cases, since this will cause a double adjustment for the exfiltration flow! 

In other words, set the storage multiplier, but leave the discharge multiplier at 1. 

To verify the actual area being used for exfiltration, see the pond summary report and the stage-storage report.



What is the Exfiltration Velocity?

The exfiltration velocity specifies the volume of water that will pass through a given area during a certain period of time.  This is sometimes referred to as a flux, or a flux velocity

Note that the units [Volume]/[Area*Time] reduce to [Length]/[Time], which is a velocity.

For saturated media, the exfiltration velocity is related to the hydraulic conductivity by Darcy's Law:

Where V is the exfiltration velocity, Ks is the saturated hydraulic conductivity, and I is the hydraulic gradient.  H is the head difference across the media, and L is the media length. 

Note that if the head [H] is not much greater than the distance to groundwater [L], the gradient is approximately equal to one [1], and the exfiltration velocity is approximately equal to the conductivity.  For other scenarios, the exfiltration velocity can be determined by multiplying the conductivity by the hydraulic gradient.

Note that Darcy's Equation applies only to saturated media.  For unsaturated conditions, other effects such as capillary action must be considered in determining the exfiltration velocity.

The term "Permeability" is sometimes used as a synonym for Conductivity. However, Permeability is a less precise term with several different meanings. The more precise term, Conductivity, is therefore used in this document.



Images courtesy of Oldcastle Precast
Storm Capture® is a registered trademark of Oldcastle Precast
HydroCAD® is a registered trademark of HydroCAD Software Solutions LLC.




Low-Impact-Development is a growing trend that involves managing stormwater at the source. Where soils are conducive to the natural infiltration process, Storm Capture exfiltration systems are a great choice. Storm Capture allows maximization of developable land by allowing detention to be placed efficiently and easily under parking lots and roadways with very little cover, as well as in non-traffic areas.



Why Harvest Stormwater?

Recognized as "Green" building practice, it can assist in points towards LEED Credits for Sustainable Sites and Water Efficiency as well as being a sustainable building design and Low Impact Development (LID) practice. Lastly, harvesting is good environmental stewardship and may provide higher resale value on the property.

Lower your building’s operational expenses by harvesting stormwater and rainwater. Take what is free to offset something you have to buy.

Storm Capture can add LEED Points for your project, under the U.S. Green Building Council guidelines.

Meet Low Impact Development [LID] requirements. The new environmentally friendly development trend is for post-construction runoff volume to be the same or less than predevelopment runoff volume.

Protect the environment. Clean, fresh water is a limited natural resource. We have the same amount of water on earth now as when the dinosaurs were here. We need it to live and we use it in the production of many consumable products.



For applications where the goals are to retain rainwater or stormwater for some type of harvesting and reuse applications, Storm Capture provides cost effective solutions.

Storm Capture retention systems are available as single modules for small applications, as well as multi-module systems for thousands or hundreds of thousands of gallons of storage.



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The Mill Creek Zanja & Enhanced Amphitheater Program


The historic Mill Creek Zanja, an almost two hundred [200] year old irrigation channel, makes an east-west journey across Redlands, from east of Mentone to Mountain View Avenue in Loma Linda. The local Native Indian population constructed the ditch that brought water to their villages near what was called Old San Bernardino in today's Loma Linda. Over the first 100 years, the ditch provided power for factories and electrical generators, water for all the regional farmers and growers between Mentone and Loma Linda, a source of recreation for Redlanders, and a tourist attraction for Redlands' visitors.

Listed as California State Historic Landmark No. 43, and Subsequently Received Designation



Brief Historical Heritage of Amphitheaters


An amphitheater or amphitheater is an open-air venue used for entertainment, performances, and sports. The term derives from the ancient Greek, meaning "on both sides" or "around" and "place for viewing".

Ancient Roman Amphitheaters were oval or circular in plan, with seating tiers that surrounded the central performance area, like a modern open-air stadium.

In contrast both ancient Greek and ancient Roman theaters were built in a semicircle, with tiered seating rising on one side of the performance area. Modern usage for "amphitheater" is lax, and does not always respect the ancient usage. As a result, the word can be found describing theatre-style stages with the audience only on one side, theaters in the round, and stadiums.

Natural formations shaped like man-made theaters are sometimes known as natural amphitheaters. The three [3] largest Roman amphitheaters. [in the original sense] in the world in order of size are the Colosseum, the Amphitheater Campania and the Amphitheater of El Djem.

Ancient Roman Amphitheaters. were major public venues, circular or oval in shape, and used for events such as gladiator combats, chariot races, venationes [animal slayings] and executions. About two hundred thirty [230] Roman Amphitheaters. have been found across the area of the Roman Empire. Their typical shape, functions and name distinguish them from Roman Theaters, which are more or less semicircular in shape; from the circuses [akin to hippodromes] whose much longer circuits were designed mainly for horse or chariot racing events; and from the smaller stadia, which were primarily designed for athletics and footraces.

The earliest Roman Amphitheaters. date from the middle of the first century BC, but most were built under Imperial rule, from the Augustan period [27 BC–14 AD] onwards.

Imperial Amphitheaters. were built throughout the Roman Empire; the largest could accommodate forty thousand [40,000] to sixty thousand [60,000] spectators, and the most elaborate featured multi-storeyed, arcaded façades and were elaborately decorated with marble, stucco and statuary.

After the end of gladiatorial games in the fifth [5th] century and of animal killings in the sixth [6th] century, most amphitheaters. fell into disrepair, and their materials were mined or recycled. Some were razed, and others converted into fortifications. A few continued as convenient open meeting places; in some of these, churches were sited.


Modern Amphitheaters

In the sense in which the word has come to be popularly used now, an amphitheater is a curved, acoustically vibrant performance space, particularly one located outdoors. Contemporary amphitheaters. often include standing structures, called bandshells, sometimes curved or bowl-shaped, both behind the stage and behind the audience, creating an area which echoes or amplifies sound, making the amphitheater ideal for musical or theatrical performances. Most are semicircular in shape, so they should not properly be called amphitheaters., but nevertheless this usage has become common.

An amphitheater does not have to be large and ornate by definition; smaller scale amphitheaters can serve as a place to host outdoor local community performances.

Notable modern amphitheaters. include the Shoreline Amphitheater and the Hollywood Bowl. The term "amphitheater" is also used [completely incorrectly in this case] for some indoor venues such as the Gibson Amphitheater




The Redlands Community

Redlands /ˈrɛdlɨndz/ is a city in San Bernardino County, California, United States of America.
As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 68,747, up from 63,591 at the 2000 census.
The population was estimated at 69,999 in 2013.

The city is located approximately ten [10] miles [16 km] east of downtown San Bernardino.


TBNC Edgemon Campus Hotels of America Redlands Multipurpose Resort & Golf Academy Program Includes Hospitality, Redlands, California USA


Brief Redlands Community History


The area now occupied by Redlands was originally part of the territory of the Morongo and Aguas Calientes tribes of Cahuilla people.


Explorations such as those of Pedro Fages and Francisco Garcés sought to extend Catholic influence to the indigenous people and the dominion of the Spanish crown into the area in the 1770s.

The Serrano [Mountain-dwelling Cahuilla] village of Guachama, located just to the west of present-day Redlands, was visited by Fr. Francisco Dumetz in 1810, and was the reason the site was chosen for a mission outpost. Dumetz reached the village on May 20, the feast day of Saint Bernardino of Siena, and thus named the region the San Bernardino Valley.

The Franciscan friars from Mission San Gabriel established the San Bernardino Asistencia in 1819 and embarked on the usual program of training the native tribes to raise crops and encouraging permanent settlements. By 1820, a ditch, known as a zanja, was dug by the natives for the friars from Mill Creek to the Asistencia. In 1822, word of the Mexican triumph in the War of Independence reached the inland area, and lands previously claimed by Spain passed to the custody of the Mexican government.

In 1842, the Lugo family bought the Rancho San Bernardino Mexican land grant and this became the first fixed settler civilization in the area.

The area northwest of current Redlands, astride the Santa Ana River, would become known as Lugonia. In 1851, the area received its first Anglo inhabitants in the form of several hundred Mormon pioneers, who purchased the entire Rancho San Bernardino, founded nearby San Bernardino, and established a prosperous farming community watered by the many lakes and streams of the San Bernardino Mountains. The Mormon community left wholesale in 1857, recalled to Utah by Brigham Young during the tensions with the federal government that ultimately led to the brief Utah War. Benjamin Barton purchased one thousand [1,000] acres [4 km2] from the Latter-day Saints and planted extensive vineyards and built a winery.

"The first settler on the site of the present Redlands is recorded to have erected a hut at the corner of what is now Cajon St. and Cypress Ave.; he was a sheep herder, and the year, 1865," reported Ira L. Swett in "Tractions of the Orange Empire." Lugonia attracted settlers; in 1869, Barry Roberts, followed a year later by the Craw and Glover families.

"The first school teacher in Lugonia, George W. Beattie, arrived in 1874—shortly followed by the town's first negro settler, Israel Beal."

The city has been visited by three [3] U.S. Presidents: William McKinley was the first in 1901, followed by Theodore Roosevelt in 1903 and William Howard Taft in 1909.

Local landmarks include the A.K. Smiley Public Library, a Moorish-style library built in 1898, and the Redlands Bowl, built in 1930 and home of the oldest continuously free outdoor concert series in the United States. Located behind the Smiley Library is the Lincoln Shrine, the only memorial honoring the "Great Emancipator", the sixteenth [16th] president, west of the Mississippi River.

Famous homes include “America’s Favorite Victorian,” the Morey Mansion, on Terracina Boulevard, and the Kimberly Crest House and Gardens, a home museum featured on the PBS series “America’s Castles.” Named after the family that purchased the house, the owners of Kimberly-Clark [makers of paper goods and Kleenex], it is a beautiful mansion set high on a hill overlooking the whole valley.

Redlands is still regarded as the "Jewel of the Inland Empire." In the mid-late twentieth [20th] Century, Redlands was home to various light manufacturing firms, and became a bedroom community for the military personnel and contractor employees of the aerospace industry that supported missions at Norton Air Force Base as well as the Lockheed Propulsion Company plant in Mentone.









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Site Identifications - General Plan - Structural Improvements - Expanded Campus Opportunities


Iconic Campus Hotel, Conference & Fine Dining


Student Support Child Development Day Care & Nursery



Golf Academy, Study Rooms, Education & PRO Shoppe



Golf Academy Training Range & Practice Greens


Tennis Facility, Interscholastic Competition Venue



Tennis School, Training Labs & Educational Support



Resort Fine Dining & Hospitality Curricula Stations



Resort Pool, Spa, Patio Venue, Public Invited



Specific Interscholastic Lodging & Hospitality Capabilities



Specific Alumni / Families Lodging & Hospitality Capabilities


University / Alumni Enhancements - Public Welcome Benefits - Expanded Recreational Opportunities


Conference, Archive Library, Study Halls & Hospitality Support



Child Development & Day Care Grassy, Site Secure Playground



Restaurant, Bistro & Delicatessen, Alumni, Student Body & Public Welcome



Expanded & Enhanced Interscholastic / Competition Standards Tennis Facility



Golf Academy Interscholastic / Competition Standards Training Range



Public Welcome Golf Training, Education and Practice Targets & Putting Greens

University / Alumni Expanded Interscholastic Opportunities - Expanded Competitive Recreational Opportunities


Iconic Hotel, Lodging & Fine Dining Educational Curricula Venue & Study Labs


Community Welcome Hotel, Lodging & Fine Dining Venue, College Promotional


Golf Academy Interscholastic / Competition Standards Training Range & Greens



Tennis School Interscholastic / Competition Standards Courts & Site Facilities



Public Welcome Golf Training, Education and Practice Targets & Putting Greens


Restaurant, Bistro & Delicatessen, Alumni, Student Body & Public Welcome


Student Support Child Development Day Care & Nursery


ADA Compliancies - Accessibilities & Facilitations - Integral Architectural Design Components


ADA Compliant Student Community & Public Site Accessibilities



ADA Compliant Student Community & Public Hotel / Resort & Site Accessibilities


Enhanced ADA Compliant Student Community & Public Recreational Accessibilities



ADA Compliant Public-Use & Student Body / Faculty Dedicated Restrooms



ADA Compliant, Shelter Enclosed Public Transportation Hub & Site Teleconnection



ADA Compliant Van Accessible, Solid Surface Parking Spaces in Applicable Zones



Video / Telecommunications Site Security Monitoring and Recording Systems



ADA Compliant Stainless Steel Drinking Fountains


Environmentally Enhanced Site Development - Accomplished Landscape Architecture & Land Planning Applications


Golf Facility as Greenspace Recreational Land Use, Public Welcome


Community Benefit, Parkland Environment Resort Hotel & Meeting Place



Expanded & Enhanced Campus & Student Body / Faculty Parking & Site Accessibility



Established Greenspace Slope Erosion Control with Tree Canopy & Understory



Enhanced SWMP / BMP Site Erosion Control Landscape Plantings Applications



Enhanced SWMP / BMP Site Erosion & Drainage Control & Water Conservation Apps



Enhanced & Site Expanded Specimen Street-Lined Canopy Trees



Enhanced Water Conserving Site-Perimeter / Screen Vegetive Plantings & Treatment








Site Specific Safety & Security - Fire & EMS Accessibilities - Fire Fuels Management


Fire / EMS & Site Security Primary Surface Access



Fire / EMS & Site Security Secondary Surface Access



Fire / EMS & Site Security Tertiary Surface Access



Fire / EMS & Site Security Alternate Surface Access



Iconic Project Central Hotel, Resort Facilities & Meeting Spaces


Project Central Hotel / Resort Kitchen & Food Preparations



Project Central Hotel / Conference Centre & Archive Library



Project Northerly Support Child Development Day Care & Nursery



Project Northerly Restaurant, Bistro & Delicatessen Units



Golf Academy & Tennis Club Primary Structure & PRO Shops


EMS / Site Configured Medical Care & First Aide Stations



Additional Installation Project Sited Fire Hydrants & Standpipes



Project Perimeter Vegetive Fire Fuels Management Program



NO PARKING Signage, Graphics Narrative & Applicable Restrictive Notices


ADA Compliancies - Accessibilities & Facilitations - Integral Architectural Design Components


ADA Compliant Facilities Accessibilties, Placards & Signage Programs



ADA Compliant Special Attention Lodging & Dining Accessibility



ADA Compliant Special Attention Recreational Activities & Opportunities



ADA Compliant Student Body, Faculty & Public Restrooms



ADA Compliant Rampage, Railings and Site Specific Surface Applications



ADA Compliant Van Accessible Parking Spaces & Assigned Zones



ADA Compliant Signage, Graphics, General Information & Restrictions



ADA Compliant Stainless Steel Drinking Fountains


Site Development Schedule & Plan of Improvements - Phase Scheduling


Iconic Campus Resort Hotel - 64 Suites, Multi-Level, Fine Dining & Spa


Hotel Sited Conference, Study Halls, Archive Library & Reading Rooms



Student Body Support Child Development Day Care & Nursery Facility



Alumni, Interscholastic & Public Use Golf Academy & Educational Venue



Golf Academy & Public-Use Target Practice Range & Putting Surfaces


Golf Academy & Public-Use PRO Shop and Study Halls with Video Support



Alumni, Interscholastic & Public Use Tennis School & Educational Venue


Expanded & Enhanced Interscholastic Competition Tennis Courts



Alumni,Student Body & Public Welcome Restaurant, Bistro & Delicatessen


University & Community Enhanced Benefits & Educational / Entertainment Opportunities


Recreational Application Greenspace Public-Welcome Golf Facilities


Alumni & Community Benefit Public-Welcome Resort Hotel & Fine Dining


Alumni & Community Benefit Public-Welcome Golf Target Training Range


Alumni, Student Body, Faculty & Community Benefit Conference Centre



Alumni, Student Body, Faculty & Community Benefit Tennis Facility



Student Body & Faculty Support Child Development Day Care & Nursery



Community & Student Body Enhanced, Shelter Public Transportation Hub



Project's Administrative & Operational Center & Management Control


Community & Urban / Site Planning Administration - Facilities Operational Schedules - Benefits to the University & Public


Governing Agencies Authorization Hotel, Resort & Lodging Conditions


Governing Agencies Authorization Hotel-Sited Conference Centre Conditions



Governing Agencies Authorization Student Body Support Day Care & Nursery



Governing Agencies Authorization Golf Course & Screened Training Range


Governing Agencies Authorization Golf Academy, Study Halls & PRO Shoppe



Governing Agencies Authorization Tennis School, Study Halls & PRO Shoppe



Governing Agencies Authorization Restaurant, Bistro & Delicatessen



Governing Agencies Authorization Public Transportation Sheltered Hub



Governing Agencies Authorization Site Lease Delineation Line



Governing Agencies Authorization Site External Lease Line Improvements



Governing Agencies Authorization Stadium NOT A PART Conditions



Governing Agencies Authorization Passive Open Space Conditions



Governing Agencies Authorization Future CHA - TBNC Planning Zones



Governing Agencies Authorization Traffic Impact Study Confirmations


Environmentally Enhanced Site Development - Accomplished Landscape Architecture & Land Planning Applications


Greenspace Golf Course, Training Range & Putting Surfaces


Greenspace. Site Perimeter Safety Screening & Foundational Plantings



Tennis Academy, Interscholastic Competition Venue & Landscaping



Enhanced Slope Erosion Control, Slope Vegetation and Landscaping



Enhanced & Expanded Pre & Post SWMP & BMP Applications



Enhanced Specimen Tree Street Canopy Installation & Maintenance














Circa 2014

Golf Academy Practice Tees
View to Clubhouse & Training Center

Golf Academy Driving Range
Site Protective Screen Netting Typical



Representational Golf Instruction Programs


Golf instruction is the art of equipping and training golfers to play better golf through improved awareness of swing cause and effects as a result of the actions by their body, the club, and their effect on the golf ball.

Most great golfers have a few common elements that make them great including but not limited to: Proper Intentionality, Swing repeatability to produce an action that fits the golfers intentionality, and a strong level of automaticity for long lasting enjoyment of the game golf.

Golf instruction is unique as golf consists of five [5] primary skills : Shots from a tee [most notable: Driving that uses a Driver], full shots from the ground (mostly known as "iron shots", pitching or three-quarter [3/4] shots designed for distance control, chipping [short shots around the green the require less than a full swing], putting [ club preferably "the putter"] and course strategy or gamesmanship.

Proficiency in teaching golf instruction requires not only technical and physical ability, but also knowledge of the rules and etiquette of the game.

Golf instruction offered on many platforms in the United States including: the PGA of America, GolfTEC, and independent golfers who "may" or "may not" have credentials that are recognized by credible teachers certified sources such as the PGA of America. Although there are many great golf instructors in the United States, who are PGA Class A Professionals, not all great instructors carry this status nor find it a major determiner of golf instruction proficiency.

Golf Instruction can be wide ranging, but many great modern day instructors are able to diagnose and prescribe swing frustrations accurately and present a clear fix that encourages the golfer in the discovery of lasting repeatability from the specific ailment that "plagued" them from a sound repeatable swing to play a golf course successfully [varying terms of success as a golfer].

Many Modern Instructors Include the Following in Their Diagnosis


Visual feedback through video and bio motion analysis


Personalized golf club fitting for individual body and swing types


On-course play under real conditions


Mental performance development


Golf specific body conditioning for optimal golf bio-mechanics


Beginning players can start lesson in several ways, but most do so in either a group or individual setting, covering the five [5] primary skills of golf.

Golf is an asymmetrical exercise that can break body balances, requiring also adequate exercises to keep the balance in muscles. Experienced recreational players often return for instruction, either to fix a specific problem they are encountering or to improve their game. Reconstruction of a golf swing to reach a high level of play often involves series of lessons over an extended period of time.

Junior golfers often begin receiving instruction by age ten [10] or younger, and often retain private teachers even when coached on a high school golf team.


The Hierarchy of Golf Skills

Some top instructors who work with professional golfers have become quite well known in their own right over the years, including Harvey Penick, Jack Grout, Dick Harmon, Jim McLean, Chuck Evans, David Leadbetter, Butch Harmon, Hank Haney, Chip Thomson, Richard Trammel, Ben Doyle, Mike Bender Sean Foley, John Marshall, Mike Bennett and Andy Plummer.

Some of the teachers maintain teaching facilities or schools, such as the Jim McLean Golf Schools, Chuck Evans Golf, or the David Leadbetter Golf Academy, where they or their disciples use their methods or systems. A few instructors focus solely on a particular aspect of the sport, such as Dave Pelz with the short game and Bob Rotella with the mental game.

Some famous golfers have been tightly bound with their instructor, such as Jack Nicklaus with Jack Grout, while in other cases golfers have made high-profile switches from one instructor to another, such as Tiger Woods moving from Butch Harmon to various other instructors.

Recreational golfers are constantly seeking tips on how to improve, and the major golf publications such as Golf Magazine and Golf Digest devote substantial portions of their pages to instructional material of various kinds, often written by top-level instructors. Even television broadcasts of professional golf tournaments often contain short instructional segments, delivered by commentators who are also instructors such as Peter Kostis.

Golf instruction may be augmented by training aids such as specially weighting or jointed clubs, putting cups for practice on the den room carpet, mini practice tees with feedback for use in garages, et cetera. Some training aids are sold via television infomercials and the more peculiar varieties were satirized in the 1996 film Tin Cup.

Golf instruction is no guarantee of success or improved play in the game. Bad mechanics can be deeply ingrained in a subject's swing, and psychological factors can also hinder progress. The 2009 Golf Channel program The Haney Project: Charles Barkley showcased some of these issues, as Hank Haney attempted to fix former NBA great Charles Barkley's infamously bad swing.














Golf Enterprise Sponsorship Site Specific Child Development Center

TBNC Edgemon Campus Hotels of America Saddleback College Site Development Program Southern California USA Edgemon Environmental Planners, Site Designers, Engineers & Cionstruction Managers CA CSLB 274107 Edgemon

The Child Development program is a theory-based, hands-on program that offers opportunities for students to deepen their understanding of children and families and the unique teaching and learning process that applies to the early years. Coursework focuses on the physical, cognitive, and social and emotional growth and development of children under the age of 12 and the unique care and education needs of children ages 0-5.

The program offers options for professional development, professional certification and transfer to four-year institutions. All options are designed to educate and prepare students to work with culturally diverse groups of children in schools, centers, and homes. Courses are offered during the day, in the evening, on weekends and online.


Visit the Saddleback Child Development Program Off Site Web Presence


The State of California offers six [6] levels of Child Development Permits, each with its own set of issuance requirements and each authorizing the holder to perform different levels of service in child development programs.

The State Permits are issued by the California Department of Education, The same agency that issues Teaching Credentials for Public School Teaching. Permits are required if you work for a school that is funded by the Department of Education or Head Start. 

The permit is useful even if not working in a state or federally funded program. To gain employment in non-state or federally funded programs you will need proof of completed coursework. Typically this is verified through transcripts, but many employers will use the State Permit as verification of course work completion.

Saddleback College is an Approved “Fast-Tracked” Processing Program. Students and alumni who have process their permits through the child development faculty receive their permits in about 8 weeks compared to the typical 4-6 months for standard processing.



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Saddleback College and Irvine Valley College are accredited by the Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges (ACCJC) of the Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC). Each college affiliated with ACCJC must undergo periodic evaluation of their programs and services through self study and peer review in a six year cycle. The most recent evaluation occurred in fall 2010. In February 2011, both colleges received a letter from the ACCJC placing them on warning status with six recommendations to be addressed by the district. These issues were addressed and a follow-up report addressing the ACCJC's concerns was submitted on October 15, 2011. On February 3, 2012, the colleges were notified that warning status had been removed and accreditation was re-affirmed. The colleges will be required to submit follow-up reports on October 15, 2012, that address continued progress on recommendations 1 (District wide planning), 2 (Resource allocation), and 6 (Communication). The report will be followed with a visit by ACCJC staff.










Robertson Recreational Surfaces [RRS] started in Arizona in 1991 and was used primarily for pool deck installations in commercial and residential applications. It was the Americans with Disabilities Act [ADA] and the Consumer Product Safety Commission [CPSC] regulations that propelled RRS into the playground world to help provide the ultimate in accessibility, while meeting all safety guidelines.


Since 1991 Robertson Recreational Surfaces has added Service Centers to Arizona, California, Nevada, Texas, and Florida.
Each center is staffed with specially trained sales and installation personnel.






Artificial Turf is a surface of synthetic fibers made to look like natural grass.

It is most often used in arenas for sports that were originally or are normally played on grass. However, it is now being used on residential lawns and commercial applications as well. The main reason is maintenance—artificial turf stands up to heavy use, such as in sports, and requires no irrigation or trimming.


Domed, covered, and partially covered stadiums may require artificial turf because of the difficulty of getting grass enough sunlight to stay healthy. However, artificial turf does have its downside: limited life, periodic cleaning requirements, petroleum use, toxic chemicals from infill, and heightened health and safety concerns.

Artificial turf first gained substantial attention in the 1960s, when it was used in the newly constructed Astrodome. The specific product used was developed by Monsanto and called AstroTurf; this term since then became a colloquialism for any artificial turf throughout the late 20th century.

AstroTurf remains a registered trademark, but is no longer owned by Monsanto. The first generation turf systems [i.e., short-pile fibers without infill] of the 1960s have been largely replaced by the second generation and third generation turf systems. Second generation synthetic turf systems feature longer fibers and sand infills, and third generation systems, which are most widely used today, offer infills that are mixtures of sand and granules of recycled rubber.


Brief Artificial Turf Surface History

David Chaney – who moved to Raleigh, North Carolina, in 1960 and later served as Dean of the North Carolina State University College of Textiles – headed the team of Research Triangle Park researchers who created the first notable artificial turf. That accomplishment led Sports Illustrated to declare Chaney as the man "responsible for indoor major league baseball and millions of welcome mats."

Artificial turf first came to prominence in 1966, when AstroTurf was installed in the Astrodome in Houston, Texas. The state-of-the-art indoor stadium had attempted to use natural grass during its initial season in 1965, but this failed miserably and the field conditions were grossly inadequate during the second half of the season, with the dead grass painted green. Due to a limited supply of the new artificial grass, only the infield was installed before the Houston Astros' home opener in April 1966, the outfield was installed in early summer during an extended Astros road trip and first used after the All-Star Break in July.

The use of AstroTurf and similar surfaces became widespread in the United States and Canada in the early 1970s, installed in both indoor and outdoor stadiums used for baseball and football.

Maintaining a grass playing surface indoors, while technically possible, is prohibitively expensive. Teams who chose to play on artificial surfaces outdoors did so because of the reduced maintenance cost, especially in colder climates with urban multi-purpose "cookie cutter" stadiums such as Cincinnati's Riverfront Stadium, Pittsburgh's Three Rivers Stadium and Philadelphia's Veterans Stadium.



Representational Health and Safety Discussion

There is evidence showing higher player injury on artificial turf. In a study performed by the National Football League Injury and Safety Panel, published in the October 2012 issue of the American Journal of Sports Medicine, Elliott B. Hershman et al. reviewed injury data from NFL games played between 2000 and 2009. "...the injury rate of knee sprains as a whole was twenty-two [22%] percent higher on FieldTurf than on natural grass. While MCL sprains did not occur at a rate significantly higher than on grass, rates of ACL sprains were sixty-seven [67%] higher on FieldTurf."

There is some evidence that periodic disinfection of artificial turf is required as pathogens are not broken down by natural processes in the same manner as natural grass. Despite this, a 2006 study suggests certain microbial life is less active in artificial turf.

Metatarsophalangeal joint sprain, known as "turf toe" when the big toe is involved, is named from the injury being associated with playing sports on rigid surfaces such as artificial turf and is a fairly common injury among professional American football players. Artificial turf is a harder surface than grass and does not have much "give" when forces are placed on it.

There is also significant concern regarding a plausible link between artificial turf and cancer. The following Major League Baseball [MLB] players and / or managers had prolonged tenure with teams that played on artificial turf, and subsequently were diagnosed with brain cancer: Darren Daulton, Ken Brett, Johnny Oates, Tug McGraw, John Vukovich, Gary Carter, Dan Quisenberry, and Dick Howser. In addition, New York Yankees outfielder Bobby Murcer had participated in the 1980 MLB playoffs, with at least five [5] of the aforementioned victims, and also died of brain cancer.

Some artificial turf requires infill such as silicon sand and/or granulated rubber. Some granulated rubber is made from recycled car tires and may carry heavy metals which can leach into the water table. Alternative sources of infill may provide a safer solution. Friction between skin and older generations of artificial turf can cause abrasions and / or burns to a much greater extent than natural grass. Artificial turf tends to retain heat from the sun and can be much hotter than natural grass with prolonged exposure to the sun.




Recreational Surfaces in Landscaping

Since the early 1990s, the use of synthetic grass in the more arid western states of the United States has moved beyond athletic fields to residential and commercial landscaping.
Similar usage has increased in Australia, because of similar climatic conditions.




WARNING Playground Equipment and the Surfacing Under and Around it May be Hot and Could Burn Bare Skin.

©2012 TotTurf® and Robertson Industries, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


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800.858.0519 Corporate Contact · 602.340.0402 Facsimile


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TBNC Edgemon Saddleback College District Site Development Programs Edgemon Southern California USA Creative Site Development, Environmental Planning, Engineering & Construction Management Edgemon CA CSLB 274107


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South Orange County Community College District [SOCCCD], founded in 1967, is one of seventy-two [72] community college districts in California. It is a multi-campus district comprised of Saddleback College in Mission Viejo, Irvine Valley College (IVC) in Irvine, and the Advanced Technology & Education Park [ATEP] in Tustin, California.

SOCCCD serves over forty-two thousand [42,000] students each year and employ more than two thousand nine hundred [2,900] Faculty and Staff.

Saddleback College and Irvine Valley College are accredited institutions, preparing students for associate degrees, transfer to four [4] year colleges and universities, workforce development and basic skills training. ATEP offers career technical and advanced technology classes from both colleges.



TBNC Edgemon Saddleback College Southern California USA Edgemon CA.CSLB 274107 Environmental Planners, Site Designers, Engineers & Construction Managers Edgemon USA

Image Credits South Orange County Community College District


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GreenBlue Infrastructure Solutions [GreenBlue] was established to research and provide solutions for green infrastructure challenges in our cities, throughout the world. 

GreenBlue been assisting trees in their battle to establish in urban areas since 1992.  With the goal of drastically improving urban planting success and increasing leaf canopy in urban areas, GreenBlue tirelessly analyzed the challenges, causes of failure and reasons for premature mortality in urban trees. 


GreenBlue subsequently examined the impact that poor planting can have on urban infrastructures.  Having identified the key issues in both of these areas, GreenBlue systematically researched solutions and designed practical products and systems to address them.

Local authorities, landscape architects, engineers and other related professionals increasingly turn to GreenBlue for guidance and best practice advice on tree planting implementation. 

As North America’s market leader in Urban Landscape Products and Specialist Tree Pit Systems, GreenBlue celebrates more than twenty [20] years of frontline experience in the field, exhaustive research, product development and field trials.  Our GreenBlue Support Service, unrivaled in the tree-planting world, can help you to achieve your tree / overstory / canopy vision.

Based in Ontario, GreenBlue Infrastructure Solutions has grown every year since its inception and operates distribution networks across North America.  The GreenBlue Program of Continuous Product Development [PCPD], conducted in conjunction with overseas partners, ensures that specifiers and clients can rest assured that the systems we offer for green infrastructures and urban planting schemes represent the very best in the sector.



Formerly operating in North America as Citygreen Urban, changing the corporate name to GreenBlue Infrastructure Solutions at the beginning of 2015. 

The reason for this change was to deeper express the GreenBlue passion for green infrastructure, sustainable stormwater management, and complimenting street furnishings.  The new name and logo were created with the subliminal message of trees and water linked creating GreenBlue, in order to better represent this vision.


The Soil Cell Pioneers

In 1992, GreenBlue invented the world’s first structural soil cell and brought it to market.  Known then as “Grassrings”, the system was the first structural soil module ever created and became the model for all future soil cell modules.  Since then, GreenBlue has continued to lead the green infrastructure industry and innovate the landscape architecture profession with unparalleled urban landscape products and tree planting systems.



The responsibility of creating and maintaining our urban landscapes and green infrastructure cannot be laid on the collective shoulders of any one particular group of professionals.  The realities of the modern planning and construction process mean that both the public and private sectors have crucial roles to play if urban landscapes are to be sustained. 

Urban trees must be correctly sited, planted, and maintained to ensure health and longevity – and this requires collaboration from several professions.  GreenBlue collaborates with all of the involved disciplines, and as a result, this is how many of our solutions have been successful born in the industry.

With the goal of improving urban landscapes and helping to create sustainable urban areas, GreenBlue has drastically improved urban planting success and increased leaf canopy in cities across the continent, while coordinating complimenting street furnishings. 

GreenBlue tirelessly analyzed the challenges, causes of failure, and premature mortality endured by urban trees – and then examined the negative impact that poor planting can have on urban infrastructures.  Having established the key issues for both of these, GreenBlue then systematically researched the reasons for those issues and designed practical products and systems to address them. 

The GreenBlue program of ongoing research, regular case studies, and continuous product development [in conjunction with our overseas branches] ensures that specifiers and clients can rest assured that the systems we offer for urban tree planting and sustainable urban landscaping represent the best in the sector.

To learn how GreenBlue Infrastructure Solutions can help you with your next urban landscape project, check out GreenBlue CPD Seminars – these continuing education programs will enhance your knowledge of urban tree pit design and sustainable green infrastructure.





Environmental + Urban Planners, Governmental Officials, Community Stakeholders, City Councilperson / Members, and Others who sit in planning committees and boards have an important role to play in ensuring that the care, maintenance and expansion of the urban forest is not overlooked when considering any proposed developments. 

An abundance of healthy urban trees can bring numerous benefits to a community, including improvements in public health, a decrease in crime and disorder, and a multiplicity of beneficial economic factors.  Therefore it makes sense that in serving the best interests of their communities, urban planners always give due consideration to the establishment and care of healthy urban tree populations. 

The GreenBlue website contains content on current best practices, urban tree planting techniques, and much more.  Of course, the fact is that many planning committees are already aware of the importance of including trees in new developments and have even been known to specify that more trees be included in a scheme prior to its approval.  This is very encouraging, but in addition to planting new trees, it is equally important to ensure their ongoing survival.  This is where GreenBlue systems can help.

For nearly two [2] decades, GreenBlue has been researching and developing urban landscape products and tree planting systems that help to create optimum conditions for the establishment of sustainable urban landscapes, whilst simultaneously building in measures that will prevent the trees from damaging utilities and infrastructure as they mature. 

Sustainable tree planting represents an investment not only in the plants themselves but also in the communities of which they will become a part.  It therefore makes sense to ensure that new trees have the best possible chance of survival so that the benefits they bring will be enjoyed for generations to come.



GreenBlue Infrastructure Solutions was established to research and provide solutions for green infrastructure challenges in North America. With the goal of drastically improving urban sustainability and increasing leaf canopy in our cities, we began a program to analyze the challenges and impact that poor tree planting can have on urban infrastructures, and designed practical products and systems to address these challenges.



71 Bysham Park Drive · Woodstock · Ontario N4T 1P1

866.282.2743 Sales + Service · 519.533.5355 Technical Assistance · 866.893.7637 Sales Management Facsimile


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As a premier manufacturer of bike racks and bike parking systems, MADRAX promotes “green” by encouraging biking as an integral part of society. MADRAX bike racks are installed in schools, office complexes, parking garages, residences, hospitals, restaurants, hotels, and anywhere else people bike as a destination. Bicycling reduces the impact on the environment. A four [4] mile trip by bike rather than a car keeps about fifteen [15#] pounds of pollutants out of the air we breathe!

MADRAX creates bike racks and bike storage systems that make it easier for people to bike to work, school, and recreational activities.





Biking is increasingly becoming the number one choice for alternative transportation and it is important to provide secure bicycle parking. By providing bicycle parking, you will be encouraging a healthy community and environment. Cyclists' bikes are precious and we get that! So we created some easy guidelines to help you design bicycle parking that is secure and functional.


Site Planning

The First thing in planning for bicycle parking is to figure out whether you need short-term parking or long-term parking.

Short term parking provides convenient and secure parking for a couple hours or less. Location of short-term parking should be near the main entrance of the building in a well-lit area. Bicycle racks should be 50 ft. from the entrance or closer than the nearest car parking stall. Short-term bicycle parking should be obviously visible from the entrance.

Long-term parking is best for commuters who must leave their bicycles for more than two hours. This is the most secure type of bike parking since bikes are protected from theft and weather conditions. Bike lockers are the most common and cost effective choice for long-term parking. Because long-term parking is usually located in low traffic areas, effective signage is recommended.


Choosing a Bicycle Rack

Not all bicycle racks are created equal. When selecting a bicycle rack, determine the appropriate user and where the bicycle racks will be installed. Ease of use, support of the bicycle, security, capacity, function, quality of materials and aesthetics are all considerations when purchasing bicycle racks.

When choosing a bicycle rack, make sure the rack is made out of high quality material. Choose a bike rack that supports the bicycle upright by its frame at two points; this prevents the front wheel from turning and the bicycle from tipping over. Make sure the frame and one or both wheels can be secured using a U-lock. For additional bicycle support use bicycle racks that have wheel wells.






Utility cycling encompasses any cycling done simply as a means of transport rather than as a sport or leisure activity. It is the original and most common type of cycling in the world.



Utility or "transportational" cycling generally involves travelling short and medium distances [several kilometres, not uncommonly 3-15 kilometers one way, or somewhat longer], often in an urban environment. It includes commuting [i.e. going to work, school or university], going shopping and running errands, as well as heading out to see friends and family or for other social activities.


It also includes economic activity such as the delivering of goods or services. In cities, the bicycle courier is often a familiar feature, and freight bicycles are capable of competing with trucks and vans particularly where many small deliveries are required, especially in congested areas.

Velotaxis can also provide a public transport service like buses and taxicabs.

Utility cycling is known to have several social and economic benefits. Policies that encourage utility cycling have been proposed and implemented for reasons including: improved public health, individual health and employers' profits, a reduction in traffic congestion and air pollution, improvements in road traffic safety, improved quality of life, improved mobility and social inclusiveness, and benefits to child development.

In the Chinese city of Beijing alone, there are an estimated four [4,000,000] million bicycles in use. It has been estimated that in the early-1980s there were approximately five [5,000.000] million cyclists in China.

As of 2000, there were an estimated eighty [80,000,000] million bicycles in Japan, accounting for seventeen [17%] percent of commuter trips, and in the Netherlands, twenty-seven [27%] of all trips are made by bicycle.


Brief Bicycle History

The development of the safety bicycle was arguably the most important change in the history of the bicycle. It shifted their use and public perception from being a dangerous toy for sporting young men to being an everyday transport tool for men—and, crucially, women—of all ages.

By the start of the twentieth [20th] Century, cycling had become an important means of transportation, and in the United States an increasingly popular form of recreation.

Bicycling clubs for men and women spread across the United States and across European countries. Cycling steadily became more important in Europe over the first half of the twentieth [20th] century, but it dropped off dramatically in the United States between 1900 and 1910. Automobiles became the preferred means of transportation. Over the 1920s, bicycles gradually became considered children's toys, and by 1940 most bicycles in the United States were made for children. For most of the twentieth century, the great majority of cycling in the United Kingdom took place on roads.


Factors that Influence Levels of Utility Cycling

Many different factors combine to influence levels of utility cycling.

In developing economies, a large amount of utility cycling may be seen simply because the bicycle is the most affordable form of vehicular transport available to many people. In richer countries, where people can have the choice of a mixture of transport types, a complex interplay of other factors influences the level of bicycle use.

Factors affecting cycling levels may include: town planning [including quality of infrastructure: cyclist "friendly" vs. cyclist "hostile"], trip-end facilities [particularly secure parking], retail policy, marketing the public image of cycling, integration with other transport modes, cycle training, terrain [hilly vs. flat], distance to destinations, levels of motorized transport and climate as well as cost. In developed countries cycling has to compete with, and work with, alternative transport modes such as private cars, public transport and walking. Thus cycling levels are not influenced just by the attractiveness of cycling alone, but also by what makes the competing modes more or less attractive.

In developed countries with high utility cycling levels, utility cyclists tend to undertake relatively short journeys. According to Irish 1996 Census data, over fifty [55%] percent of cycling workers travelled three [3] miles [4.8 km] or less, twenty-seven [27%] percent five [5] miles [8 km] or less and only seventeen [17%] percent travelled more than five [5] miles in their daily commute.

It can be argued that factors that directly influence trip length or journey time are among the most important in making cycling a competitive transport mode. Car ownership rates can also be influential. In New York City, more than half of all households do not own a car, the figure is even higher in Manhattan, over seventy-five [75%] percent, and walk/bicycle modes of travel account for twenty-one [21%] percent of all modes for trips in the city.

Decisions taken by various levels of government, as well as local groups, residents' organisations and public- and private-sector employers, can all have an impact on the so-called "modal choice" or "modal split" in daily transport. In some cases various factors may be manipulated in a manner that deliberately seeks to encourage or discourage various transport modes, including cycling.

The League of American Bicyclists [LAB] has designated a set of five criteria for evaluating the friendliness of a town or city to bicycles. These criteria are classified under the headings of: Engineering, Encouragement, Evaluation and Planning, Education, Enforcement.


Town Planning

Trip length and journey times are key factors affecting cycle use. Town Planning may have a key impact in deciding whether key destinations, schools, shops, colleges, health clinics, public transport interchanges remain within a reasonable cycling distance of the areas where people live.

The urban form can influence these issues, compact and circular settlement patterns tending to promote cycling. Alternatively, the low-density, non-circular [i.e., linear] settlement patterns characteristic of urban sprawl tends to discourage cycling.

In 1990, the Dutch adopted the "ABC" guidelines, specifically limiting developments that are major attractants to locations that are readily accessible by non-car users.


United States Style Housing Division

Settlements that provide a dense road network consisting of interconnected streets will tend to be viable utility cycling environments.

In contrast, other communities may use a cul-de-sac based, housing estate / housing subdivision model where minor roads are disconnected and only feed into a street hierarchy of progressively more "arterial" type roads. Such communities may discourage cycling by imposing unnecessary detours and forcing all cyclists onto arterial roads, which may be perceived as busy and dangerous, for all trips regardless of destination or purpose.

There is evidence that people who live in such estates are heavier than people who live in places where walking and cycling are more convenient.

It is also reported that the extra motor-traffic such communities generate tends to increase overall per-capita traffic casualty rates. Designs that propose to resolve the contradiction between the cul-de-sac and the traditional interconnected network, such as the Fused Grid, have been proposed and built with varying levels of success.

Particular issues have arisen with personal security and public order problems in some housing schemes using "back alley" or "back garden" type links. The UK Manual for Roads [2007] states: "The basic tenet is ‘public fronts and private backs’.

Ideally, and certainly in terms of crime prevention, back gardens should adjoin other back gardens or a secure communal space. ... If streets are bounded by back-garden fences or hedges, security problems can increase, drivers may be encouraged to speed, land is inefficiently used, and there is a lack of a sense of place.".



Sustainability, especially environmental sustainability, is the key to MADRAX products. The steel used to manufacture MADRAX bike racks and site furnishings is produced in the United States using the basic oxygen furnace process.

Recycled content, especially post-consumer recycled content, is an important feature of many green products. MADRAX stainless steel bike racks are made of up to ninety [90%] percent recycled material. One Walden recycled plastic bench contains the equivalent of seven hundred [750] recycled plastic milk jugs!

MADRAX recycled plastic consists of high-density polyethylene material [HDPE], also made from post-consumer recycled plastic. The material is graffiti and ultraviolet [UV] resistant and is ideal for outdoor use.

MADRAX and Thomas Steele products further meet the Green Standard by having exceptional durability and low maintenance requirements.

MADRAX bike racks and site furnishings are environmentally attractive because they do not need to be replaced as often, and their maintenance has a very low impact because harmful environmental chemicals are not needed to clean them.

All of the wood MADRAX utilizes for site furnishings must go through a chain of custody certification process. Moreover, the vendors MADRAX use for outsourcing are under on hundred [100] miles away from the fabrication plant, well within the five hundred [500] mile limit for this credit requirement.



Bicycle Training Discussion

Cycle training is another measure that is advocated as a means of maintaining or increasing levels of cycle use. The training involves teaching existing or potential cyclists bike handling, various roadcraft or "cyclecraft" skills and educating them on the safe, lawful use of the roads.

Bicycle training schemes can be differentiated according to whether they are aimed at children or adults.

In the United Kingdom, the now superseded National Cycle Proficiency scheme was focused on primary schoolchildren aged eight [8] and above. In this, children would start by gaining an off-road certificate working up to their on-road certificate by the age of ten [10]. Initial training and examination took place on simulated road layouts within school playgrounds. This approach has now been supplemented by the new National Standard for cycle training which is more focused on practical on-road training. This is part of Cycling England's portfolio of practical assistance to local authorities and other bodies, aimed at achieving their aim of "More cycling, more safely, more often".

In the United States, the League of American Bicyclists [LAB] Smart Cycling 101/201 courses, based on the Effective Cycling program, has modules aimed at all ages from children to adult beginners to more experienced adults. It is argued that such schemes do not just build confidence in the students but also make it more likely that parents will let their children cycle to school.

Cycle training may also be offered in an attempt to overcome cultural unfamiliarity with cycling or perceived cultural obstacles to bicycle use. In the Netherlands, some cycle training courses are targeted at women from immigrant communities, as a means of overcoming such obstacles to cycling by women from developing countries.




Schools & Universities

With today’s emphasis on biking and walking, bicycle parking for your school or university campus is more important than ever. Madrax can help you meet the needs of students, teachers, and the surrounding community by offering a wide range of bike parking options. To meet the challenge of frequent and multiple end-users, we produce a great variety of racks that are affordable, functional, and attractive. We also offer racks that are especially designed to guard against theft, and all of our racks are easily installed. Madrax bike racks are your answer to the problem of large-scale parking requirements. Partner with Madrax to enhance your campus vision.


Architects + Engineers

Whether your area of expertise is in residential, commercial, industrial or landscape architecture or engineering, Madrax products offer you creative, innovative bike parking solutions to meet your clients’ needs. Our wide variety of styles and colors are the perfect complement to any setting. We can help you provide the best possible design to suit your requirements and your clients’ requirements. Spending a few minutes at our website can save you hours of research. Cut your specification time while getting bicycle parking stands that set the standard for security, durability, and aesthetics. Partner with Madrax for bicycle parking that reflects your vision.



Toleration is the greatest gift of the mind; it requires the same effort of the brain that it takes to balance oneself on a bicycle.

Helen Keller






Autodesk, Inc. is an American Multinational Software Corporation [AMSC] that makes software for the architecture, engineering, construction, manufacturing, media, and entertainment industries.

Autodesk is headquartered in San Rafael, California, and features a gallery of its customers' work in its San Francisco building. The company has offices worldwide, with U.S. locations in Northern California, Oregon, and in New England in New Hampshire and Massachusetts, and Canada locations in Ontario, Quebec, and Alberta.

The company was founded in 1982 by John Walker, a coauthor of the first versions of AutoCAD, the company's flagship computer-aided design [CAD] software. Its AutoCAD and Revit software is primarily used by architects, engineers, and structural designers to design, draft, and model buildings and other structures.

Autodesk software has been used in many fields, from the New York Freedom Tower to Tesla electric cars.

Autodesk became best known for AutoCAD but now develops a broad range of software for design, engineering, and entertainment as well as a line of software for consumers, including Sketchbook, Homestyler, and Pixlr.

The company makes educational versions of its software available free to qualified students and faculty through the Autodesk Education Community, and also as a donation to eligible nonprofits through TechSoup Global. Autodesk's digital prototyping software, including Autodesk Inventor and the Autodesk Product Design Suite, are used in the manufacturing industry to visualize, simulate, and analyze real-world performance using a digital model during the design process.

The company's Revit line of software for Building Information Modeling [BIM] is designed to let users explore the planning, construction, and management of a building virtually before it is built.

Autodesk's Media and Entertainment division creates software for visual effects, color grading, and editing as well as animation, game development, and design visualization.

Maya is a 3D animation software used in film visual effects and game development.







Enhance your Community with a Public Bike Rack
Strengthen Your Streetscapes Project with MADRAX Bike Racks


Are you looking for the perfect public bike rack for your streetscapes project? Whether you are in procurement at the local, state, or federal level of government, Madrax has the bicycle parking solution for you. 

Public bike racks offer residents a stylish, safe, and predetermined place to park their bicycle. Madrax products will make your community bike friendly while still meeting the GSA’s environmental requirements that ensure safety, health, and reduction of harm to the environment. Because each of our bike racks are meticulously made and stylishly designed by experienced craftsmen, you’ll feel confident choosing MADRAX.

For over twenty-five [25] years, Madrax has crafted dependable, secure, and attractivepublic bike racks for bicycle-friendly communities. Located in Waunakee, Wisconsin, Madrax takes pride in our efficient ordering, local manufacturing, and speedy shipping processes that deliver your products on time. 



Contact Information

1080 Uniek Drive · Waunakee · Wisconsin  53597
800.448.7931 Toll Free

608.849.1080 Corporate · 608.849.1081 Facsimile

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The journey of life is like a man riding a bicycle. We know he got on the bicycle and started to move. We know that at some point he will stop and get off. We know that if he stops moving and does not get off, he will fall off.

William Golding














Most Dependable Fountains, Inc. provides communities with the best possible outdoor drinking fountains, outdoor showers and water features available today.

MDF strives to build sturdy maintenance friendly products.

Most Dependable Fountains Inc. has a sincere and powerful commitment to serving customers at the highest possible level.



The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 [ADA] is a law that was enacted by the United States Congress in 1990.

In 1986, the National Council on Disability had recommended enactment of an Americans with Disabilities Act [ADA] and drafted the first version of the bill which was introduced in the House and Senate in 1988. It was signed into law on July 26, 1990, by President George H. W. Bush, amended and signed by President George W. Bush with changes effective January 1, 2009.

The ADA is a wide-ranging civil rights law that prohibits discrimination based on disability. It affords similar protections against discrimination to Americans with Disabilities as the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which made discrimination based on race, religion, sex, national origin, and other characteristics illegal.

In addition, unlike the Civil Rights Act, the ADA also requires covered employers to provide reasonable accommodations to employees with disabilities, and imposes accessibility requirements on public accommodations.


Transforming a Popular Idea into Workable Legislation

The idea of federal legislation enhancing and extending civil rights legislation to millions of Americans with Disabilities gained bipartisan support in late 1988 and early 1989. In early 1989 both Congress and the newly-inaugurated Bush White House worked separately, then jointly, to craft workable legislation capable of expanding civil rights without imposing undue harm or costs on those already in compliance with existing rules and laws.


ADA 25 Year Anniversary, 2015

As of 2015 the ADA had improved access to public services, the built environment [e.g., crosswalks with curb cuts and accessible pedestrian signals], understanding of the abilities of people with disabilities, established a right to equal access to public services and has demonstrated the contributions which people with disabilities can make to the economy. Disparities have remained in employment, earned income, Internet access, transportation, housing, and educational attainment and the disabled remain at a disadvantage with respect to health and health care.




Most Dependable Fountains Inc. [MDF] is the industry leader for outdoor pedestal drinking fountains.

MDF Fountains are designed for the busiest of high traffic areas as well as residential communities.

Our outdoor drinking fountains provide a wide range of ADA Accessible Drinking Fountains. The series of Pedestal Drinking Fountains include steel, stainless steel, aggregate, historical, chilled and sand free.







Public accommodations and commercial facilities must follow the requirements of the 2010 Standards, including both the Title III regulations at 28 CFR part 36, subpart D; and the 2004 ADAAG at 36 CFR part 1191, appendices B and D. 

211.1 General. Where drinking fountains are provided on an exterior site, on a floor, or within a secured area they shall be provided in accordance with 211.

EXCEPTION: In detention or correctional facilities, drinking fountains only serving holding or housing cells not required to comply with 232 shall not be required to comply with 211.

211.2 Minimum Number. No fewer than two drinking fountains shall be provided. One drinking fountain shall comply with 602.1 through 602.6 and one drinking fountain shall comply with 602.7.

EXCEPTION: Where a single drinking fountain complies with 602.1 through 602.6 and 602.7, it shall be permitted to be substituted for two separate drinking fountains.

211.3 More Than Minimum Number. Where more than the minimum number of drinking fountains specified in 211.2 are provided, 50 percent of the total number of drinking fountains provided shall comply with 602.1 through 602.6, and 50 percent of the total number of drinking fountains provided shall comply with 602.7.

EXCEPTION: Where 50 percent of the drinking fountains yields a fraction, 50 percent shall be permitted to be rounded up or down provided that the total number of drinking fountains complying with 211 equals 100 percent of drinking fountains.



Advisory 1001.1 Scope. Unless otherwise modified or specifically addressed in Chapter 10, all other ADAAG provisions apply to the design and construction of recreation facilities and elements. The provisions in Section 1001.1 apply wherever these elements are provided. For example, office buildings may contain a room with exercise equipment to which these sections would apply.




Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities


The U.S. Access Board is a federal agency that promotes equality for people with disabilities through leadership in accessible design and the development of accessibility guidelines and standards for the built environment, transportation, communication, medical diagnostic equipment, and information technology.



    4.15.1. Minimum Number. Drinking fountains or water coolers required to be accessible by CODE 4.1 shall comply with 4.15.

    4.15.2. Spout Height. Spouts shall be no higher than thirty-six [36"] inches [915 mm], measured from the floor or ground surfaces to the spout outlet.

    Spout Location. The spouts of drinking fountains and water coolers shall be at the front of the unit and shall direct the water flow in a trajectory that is parallel or nearly parallel to the front of the unit. The spout shall provide a flow of water at least four [4"] in [100 mm] high so as to allow the insertion of a cup or glass under the flow of water.

    On an accessible drinking fountain with a round or oval bowl, the spout must be positioned so the flow of water is within three [3] in [75 mm] of the front edge of the fountain.

    Controls. Controls shall comply with 4.27.4. Unit controls shall be front mounted or side mounted near the front edge.



      Wall and Post-Mounted Cantilevered Units shall have a clear knee space between the bottom of the apron and the floor or ground at least twenty-seven [27"] inches [685 mm] high, thirty [30"] inches [760 mm] wide, and seventeen [17"] inches to nineteen [19"] inches [430 mm to 485 mm] deep. Such units shall also have a minimum clear floor space thirty [30"] inches by forty-eight [48"] inches [760 mm by 1220 mm] to allow a person in a wheelchair to approach the unit facing forward.

      Free-Standing or Built-in Units not having a clear space under them shall have a clear floor space at least thirty [30"] inches by forty-eight [48"] inches [760 mm by 1220 mm] that allows a person in a wheelchair to make a parallel approach to the unit. This clear floor space shall comply with CODE 4.2.4.


MDF Limited Warranty

Most Dependable Fountains [MDF] warrants that all of its products are guaranteed against defective material or poor workmanship for a period of one [1] year from date of shipment.

MDF's liability under this warranty shall be discharged by furnishing without charge any goods, or part thereof, which shall appear to the Company upon inspection to be defective material or not of first class workmanship.

MDF will not be liable for the cost of repairs, alterations or replacements, or for any expense connected therewith made by the owner or his agents. MDF will not be liable for any damages caused by defective materials or poor workmanship, expect for replacements, as provided above.

Buyer agrees that MDF has made no other warranties either expressed or implied in addition to those above stated. The drinking fountain manufactured by MDF is warranted to function if installation and maintenance instructions provided are adhered to. The units also must be used for the purpose for which they were intended.




5705 Commander Drive · Arlington · Tennessee 38002
800.552.6331 Toll Free
901.867.0039 Corporate · 901.867.4008 Facsimile

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Revel Environmental Manufacturing Inc. [REM] originated out of the large interceptor industry in both the designing and manufacturing of clarifiers, grease, sand/oil, and storm water interceptors.

REM has consistently pursued better technology in both storm water filtration and comprehensive maintenance programs for the many different systems available on the market today.




REM developed the Triton Filter system as an economical solution for the removal of hydrocarbons and other contaminants from storm water runoff. Contaminants including sand, silt, litter, paint, petroleum products, liquids/semi-liquid food substances, body fluids and other chemicals.

REM filters comply with the Federal EPA criteria of using the "Best Available Technology" [BAT] and offer a cost effective alternative to other expensive oil-water separators.

In addition to REM Standard Catch Basin Filters [SCBF] for trench drains, drop inlets and curb inlets; REM can customize filters for specific needs at each site and have many applications for shopping centers, office buildings, industrial parks and community developments, both during the course of construction [CoC] and the ongoing operating concern. Other applications include gas stations, truck stops, maintenance shops, highways, urban streets and other pollution-prone areas.

The REM filter design uses an aggressive yet environmentally safe absorbent material know as XSORB® Select. XSORB® Select is licensed as an oil cleanup agent by the California EPA, State Water Resources Control Board and approved by the Department of Fish and Game to cleanup California's sensitive rivers and waterways.

The goal at REM is not only to offer a superior line of catch basin filter inserts by staying on the leading edge of technology, but to also offer a quality maintenance/inspection program that keeps our filters and other brands working in compliance throughout the different seasons of the year and phases of a project.

In addition to servicing catch basin filter inserts, REM offers a complete maintenance/inspection program designed around both large and small interceptors, i.e. clarifiers, sand/oil, etc. REM also offers consulting in the area's of both large and small interceptors, to help determine which system would best fit your specific application.

The design of REM filters allows easy on-site maintenance, which helps keep ongoing costs low. The filter medium is disposed of in accordance with Federal, State and local laws for petroleum waste. REM Inc. participates in a recycling program, which has been approved by the California EPA, this program facilitates the separation and recycling of oil and absorbent, lessening the customer's liability and decreasing landfill use while doing the most to protect the environment.

REM provides additional product support by extending a Five [5] Year Warranty on filters when serviced by REM Inc, or an approved vendor.

REM offers a complete line of absorbent barriers such as booms, pillows and socks to protect storm drains from contaminated runoff during the course of construction [CoC] and the ongoing property operations. REM also offers a complete line of absorbents, lightweight granular materials, absorbent pads and rugs, spill response kits and biohazard emergency response kits. These absorbents and kits are designed to clean up a wide range of liquid and semi-liquid spills that will leave the surface clean, dry and non-slippery.




REM Triton Drop Inlet Filter – The REM TRITON Filter is an effective and economical solution to help property owners, corporations and municipalities meet storm water quality requirements and regulations. Easily installed immediately below the grate in storm drains and in catch basin inlet structures the REM TRITON filter utilizes a patented media cartridge system that effectively removes pollutants from stormwater.  Appropriate for industrial, commercial, retail and municipal applications, the filter is available for most common size catch basins. Media strategy may be custom configured for specific pollutant concerns.






Erosion control is the practice of preventing or controlling wind or water erosion in agriculture, land development, coastal areas, riverbanks and construction sites. Effective erosion controls are important techniques in preventing water pollution, soil loss, wildlife habitat loss, property and human property casualty.

Erosion controls are used in natural areas, agricultural settings or urban environments.

In urban areas erosion controls are often part of Stormwater Runoff Management Programs [SWMP] required by local governments.

The controls often involve the creation of a physical barrier, such as vegetation or rock, to absorb some of the energy of the wind or water that is causing the erosion. On construction sites they are often implemented in conjunction with sediment controls such as sediment basins and silt fences.

Bank erosion is a natural process: without it, rivers would not meander and change course. However, land management patterns that change the hydrograph and/or vegetation cover can act to increase or decrease channel migration rates. In many places, whether or not the banks are unstable due to human activities, people try to keep a river in a single place. This can be done for environmental reclamation or to prevent a river from changing course into land that is being used by people. One way that this is done is by placing riprap or gabions along the bank.




Representational Mathematical Modeling

Since the 1920s and 1930s scientists have been creating Mathematical Models for understanding the mechanisms of soil erosion and resulting sediment surface runoff, including an early paper by Albert Einstein applying Baer's law.

These models have addressed both gully and sheet erosion. Earliest models were a simple set of linked equations which could be employed by manual calculation. By the 1970s the models had expanded to complex computer models addressing Nonpoint Source Pollution [NSP] with thousands of lines of computer code.

The more complex models were able to address nuances in micrometerology, soil particle size distributions and micro-terrain variation.





Stormwater is water that originates during precipitation events and snow/ice melt. Stormwater can soak into the soil [infiltrate], be held on the surface [reservoir retained] and evaporate, or runoff and end up in nearby streams, rivers, or other water bodies as surface body water.

In natural landscapes such as forests, the soil absorbs much of the stormwater and plants help hold stormwater close to where it falls. In developed environments, unmanaged stormwater can create two [2] major issues: one related to the volume and timing of runoff water [flooding] and the other related to potential contaminants that the water is carrying [water pollution].

Stormwater is also a resource and important as the world's human population demand exceeds the availability of readily available water. Techniques of storm water harvesting with point source water management and purification can potentially make urban environments self-sustaining in terms of water.


Brief Stormwater History

Since humans began living in concentrated village or urban settings, stormwater runoff has been an issue. During the Bronze Age, housing took a more concentrated form, and impervious surfaces emerged as a factor in the design of early human settlements.

Some of the early incorporation of stormwater engineering is evidenced in ancient Greece.

A specific example of an early stormwater runoff system design is found in the archaeological recovery at Minoan Phaistos on Crete.


Stormwater Pollution Concern

Because impervious surfaces[parking lots, roads, buildings, compacted soil] do not allow rain to infiltrate into the ground, more runoff is generated than in the undeveloped condition. This additional runoff can erode watercourses [streams and rivers] as well as cause flooding after the stormwater collection system is overwhelmed by the additional flow.

Because the water is flushed out of the watershed during the storm event, little infiltrates the soil, replenishes groundwater, or supplies stream baseflow in dry weather.

A first flush is the initial runoff of a rainstorm. During this phase, polluted water entering storm drains in areas with high proportions of impervious surfaces is typically more concentrated compared to the remainder of the storm. Consequently, these high concentrations of urban runoff result in high levels of pollutants discharged from storm sewers to surface waters.

Pollutants entering surface waters during precipitation events is termed polluted runoff. Daily human activities result in deposition of pollutants on roads,turf areas, roofs, farm fields, etc. When it rains or there is irrigation, water runs off and ultimately makes its way to a river, lake, or the ocean.

While there is some attenuation of these pollutants before entering the receiving waters, the quantity of human activity results in large enough quantities of pollutants to impair these receiving waters.




Stormwater Management Programs


Managing the quantity and quality of stormwater is termed, "Stormwater Management."

The term Best Management Practice [BMP] is often used to refer to both structural or engineered control devices and systems [e.g. retention ponds] to treat or store polluted stormwater, as well as operational or procedural practices.


Stormwater management includes both technical and institutional aspects, including:

Stormwater Runoff as a Source of Pollution

In addition to the pollutants carried in stormwater runoff, urban runoff is being recognized as a cause of pollution in its own right.

In natural catchments [watersheds] surface runoff entering waterways is a relatively rare event, occurring only a few times each year and generally after larger storm events. Before development occurred most rainfall soaked into the ground and contributed to groundwater recharge or was recycled into the atmosphere by vegetation through evapotranspiration [ETO].

Modern drainage systems which collect runoff from impervious surfaces [e.g., roofs and roads] ensure that water is efficiently conveyed to waterways through pipe networks, meaning that even small storm events result in increased waterway flows.

In addition to delivering higher pollutants from the urban catchment, increased stormwater flow can lead to stream erosion, encourage weed invasion, and alter natural flow regimes. Native species often rely on such flow regimes for spawning, juvenile development, and migration.

In some areas, especially along the U.S. coast, polluted runoff from roads and highways may be the largest source of water pollution. For example, about seventy [75%] percent of the toxic chemicals getting to Seattle, Washington's Puget Sound are carried by stormwater that runs off paved roads and driveways, rooftops, yards, and other developed land.



Brief Listing of Federal Requirements

In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency {EPA] is charged with regulating stormwater pursuant to the Clean Water Act [CWA].

The goal of the CWA is to restore all "Waters of the United States" to their "fishable" and "swimmable" conditions. Point Source Discharges [PSDs], which originate mostly from municipal wastewater [sewage] and industrial wastewater discharges, have been regulated since enactment of the CWA in 1972.

Pollutant loadings from these sources are tightly controlled and limited. However, despite these controls, thousands of water bodies in the U.S. remain classified as "impaired," meaning that they contain pollutants at levels higher than is considered safe by EPA for the intended beneficial use of the water. Much of this impairment is due to polluted runoff.

Under the CWA, Point Source Discharges [PSDs] to "Waters of the United States" require National Pollution Discharge Elimination System [NPDES] permits.

To address the nationwide problem of stormwater pollution, Congress broadened the CWA definition of "Point Source" in 1987 to include industrial stormwater discharges and Municipal Separate Storm Sewer Systems ["MS4"]. These facilities were required to obtain NPDES permits. This 1987 expansion was promulgated in two phases: Phase I and Phase II.

Phase I required that all municipalities of one hundred thousand [100,000] persons or more, industrial dischargers, and construction sites of five [5] acres [20,000 m2] or more have NPDES permits for their stormwater discharges. Phase I permits were issued in much of the United States in 1991.

Phase II required that all municipalities, industrial dischargers, construction sites of one [1] acre [4,000 m2] or more, and other large property owners [such as school districts] have NPDES permits for their stormwater discharges. Phase II rules came into effect in 2003.

EPA issued a revised Construction General Permit [CGP] in 2012. The permit applies to construction sites with one [1] or more acres of land disturbance.

In 2009 EPA issued new discharge standards, called effluent guidelines, for construction sites. These requirements set a new national minimum standard for erosion controls and sediment controls, and pollution prevention measures. The effluent guideline provisions are incorporated into the EPA and state general permits.

In 2009 EPA also launched the website "Watershed Central" to allow concerned public to develop plans to protect local watersheds and combat stormwater pollution.





Certified Professional in Erosion and Sediment Control

Certified Professional in Erosion and Sediment Control [CPESC] is a qualification indicating the holder has educational training, expertise and experience in controlling erosion and sedimentation, and met certification standards.



Representational CPESC Eligibility Requirements & Standards

Each applicant must successfully pass a written examination designed to determine proficiency in the principles, practices, and legislation of erosion and sediment control. Applicants must also meet one of the following requirements;

1.] Earn a BS degree or higher plus three [3] years of professional level experience in the soil erosion and sediment control profession.

2.] Complete seven [7] years or more of professional level experience in the erosion and sediment control profession.

Through the professional experience profile, references, and written exam, the applicant must demonstrate an ability to observe, evaluate, and synthesize information; to consider alternatives; and to propose appropriate recommendations in a clear, logical manner.

International applicants must provide documentation to assure that educational degrees obtained and work experience are comparable to the requirements described above.


Public Education Campaigns

Education is a Key Component of Stormwater Management

A number of agencies and organizations have launched campaigns to teach the public about stormwater pollution, and how they can contribute to solving it. Thousands of local governments in the United States have developed education programs as required by their NPDES stormwater permits.

One example of a local educational program is that of the West Michigan Environmental Action Council [WMEAC], which has coined the term Hydrofilth to describe stormwater pollution, as part of its "15 to the River" campaign. During a rain storm, it may take only fifteen [15] minutes for contaminated runoff in Grand Rapids, Michigan to reach the Grand River. Its outreach activities include a rain barrel distribution program and materials for homeowners on installing rain gardens.

Other public education campaigns highlight the importance of green infrastructure in slowing down and treating stormwater runoff. DuPage County Stormwater Management launched the "Love Blue. Live Green." outreach campaign on social media sites to educate the public on green infrastructure and other Best Management Practices [BMP] for Stormwater Runoff.

Articles, websites, pictures, videos and other media are disseminated to the public through this campaign.


Brief State and Local Requirements & Standards

The Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] has authorized forty-six [46] states to issue NPDES permits.

In addition to implementing the NPDES requirements, many states and local governments have enacted their own Stormwater Management Laws and Ordinances, and some have published Stormwater Treatment Design Manuals [STDM].

Some of these state and local requirements have expanded coverage beyond the federal requirements. For example, the State of Maryland requires erosion and sediment controls on construction sites of five thousand [5,000 sf] square feet [460 m2] or more.

It is not uncommon for state agencies to revise their requirements and impose them upon counties and cities; daily fines ranging as high as twenty-five thousand [$25,000] dollars can be imposed for failure to modify their local stormwater permitting for construction sites, for instance.


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960 Suite B · Detroit Avenue · Concord · California 94518
United States of America

925.676.4736 Corporate Contact · 925.676.8676 Facsimile

















Improve Your Game at Camp

Sports are FUN, but they are more fun when you get better! USSC professional, passionate, and positive coaches will help your child become a better player and a more inspired athlete. Camp provides the perfect opportunity to improve skills, make new friends, laugh hard, and smile a lot.

Select a sport, explore programs and applicable locations, then reserve your camp soon.


US Sports Camp

Join the Nike Sports Camps Team


US Sports Camps [operators of Nike Sports Camps] is America's largest sports camp network with over eight hundred [500] overnight and day camps across the country. USSC has been successful by running great camps at quality facilities with America’s best coaches.

USSC is always looking for motivated college coaches and teaching professionals who want to direct Nike Sports Camps. Whether you are currently directing a camp or you want to start a new camp, we would love to talk with you about partnering with US Sports Camps.

If you have interest in partnering with US Sports Camps please send us an email that includes: your resume, camp experience, and the location [city, state, facility] of your existing camp or where you would like to start one. We look forward to hearing from you.

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In tennis, a junior is a player under eighteen [18] years of age, who is still legally protected by a parent or guardian. Players on the main adult tour who are under eighteen [18] must have documents signed by a parent or guardian. These players, however, are still eligible to play in junior tournaments.

The International Tennis Federation [ITF] conducts a junior tour that allows juniors to establish a world ranking and an Association of Tennis Professionals [ATP] or Women's Tennis Association [WTA] ranking.

Most juniors who enter the international circuit do so by progressing through ITF, Satellite, Future, and Challenger Tournaments before entering the main circuit. The latter three [3] circuits also have adults competing in them. Some juniors, however, such as Australian Lleyton Hewitt and Frenchman Gaël Monfils, have catapulted directly from the junior tour to the ATP tour by dominating the junior scene or by taking advantage of opportunities given to them to participate in professional tournaments.

In 2004, the ITF implemented a new rankings scheme to encourage greater participation in doubles, by combining two rankings [singles and doubles] into one combined tally.

Junior tournaments do not offer prize money except for the Grand Slam Tournaments, which are the most prestigious junior events. Juniors may earn income from tennis by participating in the Future, Satellite, or Challenger Tours. Tournaments are broken up into different tiers offering different amounts of ranking points, culminating with Grade A.

Leading juniors are allowed to participate for their nation in the Junior Fed Cup and Davis Cup competitions. To succeed in tennis often means having to begin playing at a young age. To facilitate and nurture a junior's growth in tennis, almost all tennis playing nations have developed a junior development system. Juniors develop their play through a range of tournaments on all surfaces, accommodating all different standards of play. Talented juniors may also receive sponsorships from governing bodies or private institutions.



The Tennis Court Oath [French: Serment du Jeu de Paume] was a pivotal event during the first days of the French Revolution.

The Oath was a pledge signed by five hundred seventy-six [576] of the five hundred seventy-seven [577] members from the Third Estate who were locked out of a meeting of the Estates-General on 20 June 1789. The only person who did not sign was Joseph Martin-Dauch from Castelnaudary, who would not execute decisions not decided by the king. hey made a makeshift conference room inside a tennis court, located in the Saint-Louis district of the city of Versailles, near the Palace of Versailles.

On 17 June 1789, this group, led by Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, began to call themselves the National Assembly. On the morning of 20 June, the deputies were shocked to discover that the chamber door was locked and guarded by soldiers. Immediately fearing the worst and anxious that a royal attack by King Louis XVI was imminent, the deputies congregated in a nearby indoor tennis [Jeu de paume] court where they took a solemn collective oath "not to separate, and to reassemble wherever circumstances require, until the constitution of the kingdom is established".

Some historians have argued that, given political tensions in France at that time, the deputies' fears, even if wrong, were reasonable and that the importance of the oath goes above and beyond its context.

The deputies pledged not to stop the meetings until the constitution had been written, despite the royal prohibition. The oath was both a revolutionary act, and an assertion that political authority derived from the people and their representatives rather than from the monarch himself. Their solidarity forced Louis XVI to order the clergy and the nobility to join with the Third Estate in the National Assembly in order to give the illusion that he controlled the National Assembly.


Significance of The Tennis Court Oath

The Oath signified for the first time that French citizens formally stood in opposition to Louis XVI, and the National Assembly's refusal to back down forced the king to make concessions. It was foreshadowed by, and drew considerably from, the 1776 United States Declaration of Independence, especially the preamble.

The Oath also inspired a wide variety of revolutionary activity in the months afterwards, ranging from rioting across the French countryside to renewed calls for a written French constitution. Likewise, it reinforced the Assembly's strength and forced the King to formally request that voting occur based on head, not order.

The Tennis Court Oath, which was taken in June 1789, preceded the 4 August 1789 abolition of feudality and the 26 August 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen.













Many materials are used as mulches, which are used to retain soil moisture, regulate soil temperature, suppress weed growth, and for aesthetics.

Mulch is applied to the soil surface, around trees, paths, flower beds, to prevent soil erosion on slopes, and in production areas for flower and vegetable crops. Mulch layers are normally two [2"] inches or more deep when applied.

Mulch is applied at various times of the year depending on the purpose. Towards the beginning of the growing season mulches serve initially to warm the soil by helping it retain heat which is lost during the night. This allows early seeding and transplanting of certain crops, and encourages faster growth. As the season progresses, mulch stabilizes the soil temperature and moisture, and prevents the growing of weeds from seeds.

In temperate climates, the effect of mulch is dependent upon the time of year they are applied and when applied in fall and winter, are used to delay the growth of perennial plants in the spring or prevent growth in winter during warm spells, which limits freeze thaw damage.

The effect of mulch upon soil moisture content is complex. Mulch forms a layer between the soil and the atmosphere which prevents sunlight from reaching the soil surface, thus reducing evaporation. However, mulch can also prevent water from reaching the soil by absorbing or blocking water from light rains.

In order to maximize the benefits of mulch, while minimizing its negative influences, it is often applied in late spring/early summer when soil temperatures have risen sufficiently, but soil moisture content is still relatively high. However, permanent mulch is also widely used and valued for its simplicity, as popularized by author Ruth Stout, who said, "My way is simply to keep a thick mulch of any vegetable matter that rots on both sides of my vegetable and flower garden all year long. As it decays and enriches the soils, I add more."

Plastic mulch used in large-scale commercial production is laid down with a tractor-drawn or standalone layer of plastic mulch. This is usually part of a sophisticated mechanical process, where raised beds are formed, plastic is rolled out on top, and seedlings are transplanted through it. Drip irrigation is often required, with drip tape laid under the plastic, as plastic mulch is impermeable to water.


Representational Organic Mulches Applications

Organic mulches decay over time and are temporary. The way a particular organic mulch decomposes and reacts to wetting by rain and dew affects its usefulness.

Some mulches such as straw, peat, sawdust and other wood products may for a while negatively affect plant growth because of their wide carbon to nitrogen ratio, because bacteria and fungi that decompose the materials remove nitrogen from the surrounding soil for growth. However, whether this effect has any practical impact on gardens is disputed by researchers and the experience of gardeners.

Organic mulches can mat down, forming a barrier that blocks water and air flow between the soil and the atmosphere. Vertically applied organic mulches can wick water from the soil to the surface, which can dry out the soil. Mulch made with wood can contain or feed termites, so care must be taken about not placing mulch too close to houses or building that can be damaged by those insects. Some mulch manufacturers recommend putting mulch several inches away from buildings.





Industry Generated Colored Mulch in The Built Environment

Some organic mulches are colored red, brown, black, and other colors. Isopropanolamine, specifically 1-Amino-2-propanol or DOW™ monoisopropanolamine, may be used as a pigment dispersant and color fastener in these mulches.

Types of mulch which can be dyed include: wood chips, bark chips [barkdust] and pine straw.

Colored mulch is made by dyeing the mulch in a water-based solution of colorant and chemical binder. When colored mulch first entered the market, most formulas were suspected to contain toxic, heavy metals and other contaminates. Today, “current investigations indicate that mulch colorants pose no threat to people, pets or the environment. The dyes currently used by the mulch and soil industry are similar to those used in the cosmetic and other manufacturing industries [i.e., iron oxide],” as stated by the Mulch and Soil Council.

Colored mulch can be applied anywhere non-colored mulch is used [such as large bedded areas or around plants] and features many of the same gardening benefits as traditional mulch, such as improving soil productivity and retaining moisture.

As mulch decomposes, just as with non-colored mulch, more mulch may need to be added to continue providing benefits to the soil and plants. However, if mulch is faded, spraying dye to previously spread mulch in order to restore color is an option.





Wood chips are a byproduct of the pruning of trees by arborists, utilities and parks; they are used to dispose of bulky waste.

Tree branches and large stems are rather coarse after chipping and tend to be used as a mulch at least three [3"] inches thick. The chips are used to conserve soil moisture, moderate soil temperature and suppress weed growth. The decay of freshly produced chips from recently living woody plants, consumes nitrate; this is often off set with a light application of a high-nitrate fertilizer.

Wood chips are most often used under trees and shrubs. When used around soft stemmed plants, an unmulched zone is left around the plant stems to prevent stem rot or other possible diseases. They are often used to mulch trails, because they are readily produced with little additional cost outside of the normal disposal cost of tree maintenance. Wood chips come in various colors.



Woodchip mulch is a byproduct of reprocessing used [untreated] timber [usually packaging pallets], to dispose of wood waste by creating woodchip mulch. The chips are used to conserve soil moisture, moderate soil temperature and suppress weed growth.

Woodchip mulch is often used under trees, shrubs or large planting areas and can last much longer than arborist mulch. In addition, many consider woodchip mulch to be visually appealing, as it comes in various colors.

Woodchips can also be reprocessed into playground woodchip to be used as an impact-attenuating playground surfacing.



Bark chips of various grades are produced from the outer corky bark layer of timber trees. Sizes vary from thin shredded strands to large coarse blocks. The finer types are very attractive but have a large exposed surface area that leads to quicker decay.

Layers two [2"] inches or three [3"] inches deep are usually used, bark is relativity inert and its decay does not demand soil nitrates. Bark chips are also available in various colors.


Representational On-site Mulch Production & Applications

Owing to the great bulk of mulch which is often required on a site, it is often impractical and expensive to source and import sufficient mulch materials. An alternative to importing mulch materials is to grow them on site in a "mulch garden" - an area of the site dedicated entirely to the production of mulch which is then transferred to the growing area. Mulch gardens should be sited as close as possible to the growing area so as to facilitate transfer of mulch materials.








A best practice or best practice is a method or technique that has consistently shown results superior to those achieved with other means, and that is used as a benchmark. In addition, a "best" practice can evolve to become better as improvements are discovered.

Best practice is considered by some as a business buzzword, used to describe the process of developing and following a standard way of doing things that multiple organizations can use.


Best practices are used to maintain quality as an alternative to mandatory legislated standards and can be based on self-assessment or benchmarking. Best practice is a feature of accredited management standards such as ISO 9000 and ISO 14001.

Some consulting firms specialize in the area of best practice and offer pre-made 'templates' to standardize business process documentation. Sometimes a "best practice" is not applicable or is inappropriate for a particular organization's needs. A key strategic talent required when applying best practice to organizations is the ability to balance the unique qualities of an organization with the practices that it has in common with others.

Good Operating Practice [GOP] is a strategic management term. More specific uses of the term include Good Agricultural Practices [GAP], Good Manufacturing Practice [GMP], Good Laboratory Practice [GLP], Good Clinical Practice [GCP] and Good Distribution Practice {GDP].



Prototypical Environmental Best Management Systems

The concept of best practice has been employed extensively in environmental management. For example, it has been employed in aquaculture such as recommending low-phosphorus feed ingredients, in forestry to manage riparian buffer zones, in livestock and pasture management to regulate stocking rates, and in particular, Best Management Practices [BMPs] have been important to improving water quality relating to Nonpoint Source Pollution [NSP] of fertilizers in agriculture as well as the identification and adoption of best practice for controlling salinity.

However, in the context of complex environmental problems such as dryland salinity, there are significant challenges in defining what is best in any given context. Best Management Practice [BMP] for complex problems is context specific and often contested against a background of imperfect knowledge. In these contexts, it is more useful to think of Best Management Practice as an "adaptive learning process" rather than a fixed set of rules or guidelines. This approach to best practice focuses on fostering improvements in quality and promoting continuous learning.





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Road Traffic Safety [RTS] refers to methods and measures for reducing the risk of a person using the road network for being killed or seriously injured.

The users of a road include pedestrians, cyclists, motorists, their passengers, and passengers of on-road public transport, mainly buses and trams.

Best-practice road safety strategies focus upon the prevention of serious injury and death crashes in spite of human fallibility [which is contrasted with the old road safety paradigm of simply reducing crashes assuming road user compliance with traffic regulations].

Safe road design is now about providing a road environment which ensures vehicle speeds will be within the human tolerances for serious injury and death wherever conflict points exist.

As sustainable solutions for all classes of road have not been identified, particularly lowly trafficked rural and remote roads, a hierarchy of control should be applied, similar to best practice Occupational Safety and Health.

At the highest level is sustainable prevention of serious injury and death crashes, with sustainable requiring all key result areas to be considered.

At the second level is real time risk reduction, which involves providing users at severe risk with a specific warning to enable them to take mitigating action.

The third level is about reducing the crash risk which involves applying the road design standards and guidelines [such as from AASHTO], improving driver behavior and enforcement.


Pedal Bicycle Commuters

Dependent on jurisdiction, road type and age, pedal cyclists may be required conform to restrictions on driving after consuming alcohol or various drugs, comply with restrictions on use of mobile phones, be covered by compulsory insurance, wear a bicycle helmet and comply with certain speed limits.




Representational Background

Road Traffic Crashes are one [1] of the world’s largest public health and injury prevention problems.

The problem is all the more acute because the victims are overwhelmingly healthy before their crashes. According to the World Health Organization [WHO], more than one million [1,000,000] people are killed on the world’s roads each year. A report published by the WHO in 2004 estimated that some one million, two hundred thousand [1.2 m] people were killed and fifty million [50,000,000] injured in traffic collisions on the roads around the world each year and was the leading cause of death among children ten [10] years to nineteen [19] years of age. The report also noted that the problem was most severe in developing countries and that simple prevention measures could halve the number of deaths.

The standard measures used in assessing road safety interventions are fatalities and killed or seriously injured [KSI] rates, usually per billion. Countries caught in the old road safety paradigm, replace KSI rates with crash rates — for example, crashes per million vehicle miles.

Vehicle speed within the human tolerances for serious injury and death is a key goal of modern road design because impact speed affects the severity of injury to both occupants and pedestrians. For occupants, Joksch [1993] found the probability of death for drivers in multi-vehicle accidents increased as the fourth [4th] power of impact speed [often referred to by the mathematical term δv ("delta V"), meaning change in velocity].

Injuries are caused by sudden, severe acceleration [or deceleration]; this is difficult to measure. However, crash reconstruction techniques can estimate vehicle speeds before a crash. Therefore, the change in speed is used as a surrogate for acceleration. This enabled the Swedish Road Administration to identify the KSI risk curves using actual crash reconstruction data which led to the human tolerances for serious injury and death referenced above.

Interventions are generally much easier to identify in the modern road safety paradigm, whose focus is on the human tolerances for serious injury and death. For example, the elimination of head-on KSI crashes simply required the installation of an appropriate median crash barrier. For example, roundabouts, with speed reducing approaches, encounter very few KSI crashes.

The old road safety paradigm of purely crash risk is a far more complex matter. Contributing factors to highway crashes may be related to the driver [such as driver error, illness or fatigue], the vehicle [brake, steering, or throttle failures] or the road itself [lack of sight distance, poor roadside clear zones, etc.]. Interventions may seek to reduce or compensate for these factors, or reduce the severity of crashes. A comprehensive outline of interventions areas can be seen in Management Systems for Road Safety [MSRS].

In addition to management systems, which apply predominantly to networks in built-up areas, another class of interventions relates to the design of roadway networks for new districts. Such interventions explore the configurations of a network that will inherently reduce the probability of collisions.

Interventions for the prevention of road traffic injuries are often evaluated; the Cochrane Library has published a wide variety of reviews of interventions for the prevention of road traffic injuries.

For road traffic safety purposes it can be helpful to classify roads into three [3] usages: Built-Up Urban Streets with slower speeds, dense and diverse road users; Non Built-Up Rural Roads with higher speeds; and Major Highways [Motorways / Interstates / Freeways / Autobahns] reserved for motor-vehicles and designed to minimize and attenuate crashes.

Most casualties occur on urban streets but most fatalities on rural roads, while motorways are the safest in relation to distance traveled. For example, in 2013, German Autobahns carried thirty-one [31%] percent of motorized road traffic [in travel-kilometres] while accounting for thirteen [13%] percent of Germany's traffic deaths.

The autobahn fatality rate of 1.9 deaths per billion-travel-kilometres compared favorably with the 4.7 rate on urban streets and 6.6 rate on rural roads.


Prototypical Motor Vehicle Users

Dependent on jurisdiction, driver age, road type and vehicle type, motor vehicle drivers may be required to pass a driving test [public transport and goods vehicle drivers may need additional training and licensing], conform to restrictions on driving after consuming alcohol or various drugs, comply with restrictions on use of mobile phones, be covered by compulsory insurance, wear seat belts and comply with certain speed limits. Motorcycle riders may additionally be compelled to wear a motorcycle helmet. Drivers of certain vehicle types may be subject to maximum driving hour regulations.

Some jurisdictions such as the United States Virginia and Maryland, have implemented specific regulations such as the prohibiting mobile phone use by, and limiting the number of passengers accompanying, young and inexperienced drivers. It has been noticed that more serious collisions occur at night, when the car has multiple occupants, and when seat belt use is less.

Several Insurance Companies have proposed that the following restrictions should be imposed on new drivers: a "curfew" imposed on young drivers to prevent them driving at night, an experienced supervisor to chaperon the less experienced driver, forbidding the carrying of passengers, zero alcohol tolerance, raising the standards required for driving instructors and improving the driving test, vehicle restrictions [e.g. restricting access to 'high-performance' vehicles], a sign placed on the back of the vehicle [an N- or P-Plate] to notify other drivers of a novice driver and encouraging good behavior in the post-test period.

Some countries or states have already implemented some of these ideas. Pay-As-You-Drive adjusts insurance costs according to when and where the person drives.












A charrette, pronounced [shuh-ret], often Anglicized to charette or charet and sometimes called a design charrette, is an intense period of design or planning activity.



Charrettes General Discussion

The word charrette may refer to any collaborative session in which a group of designers drafts a solution to a design problem.

While the structure of a charrette varies, depending on the design problem and the individuals in the group, charrettes often take place in multiple sessions in which the group divides into sub-groups. Each sub-group then presents its work to the full group as material for further dialogue.

Such charrettes serve as a way of quickly generating a design solution while integrating the aptitudes and interests of a diverse group of people. Compare this term with workshop.


Specific Applications of Charrette

Charrettes take place in many disciplines, including land use planning, or urban planning. In planning, the charrette has become a technique for consulting with all stakeholders.

This type of charrette [sometimes called an inquiry by design] typically involves intense and possibly multi-day meetings, involving Municipal Officials, Land Use Developers, and Representational Residents.

A successful charrette promotes joint ownership of solutions and attempts to defuse typical confrontational attitudes between residents and developers. Charrettes tend to involve small groups, however the residents participating may not represent all the residents nor have the moral authority to represent them. Residents who do participate get early input into the planning process. For developers and municipal officials charrettes achieve community involvement, may satisfy consultation criteria, with the objective of avoiding costly legal battles.

Other uses of the term "Charrette" occur within an Academic or Professional setting, whereas urban planners invite the general public to their planning charrettes. Thus most people [unless they happen to be design students] encounter the term "Charrette" in an urban-planning context.

In fields of design such as architecture, landscape architecture, industrial design, interior design, interaction design, or graphic design, the term charrette may refer to an intense period of work by one person or a group of people prior to a deadline. The period of a charrette typically involves both focused and sustained effort. The word "Charrette" may also be used as a verb, as in, for example, "I am Charretting" or "I am on Charrette [or: en charrette]," simply meaning I am working long nights, intensively toward a deadline.

An example of the charrette, the School of Architecture at Rice University and University of Virginia's School of Architecture unofficially calls the last week before the end of classes Charrette. At the final deadline time [assigned by the school], all students must put their "pencils down" and stop working. Students then present their work to fellow-students and faculty in a critiqued presentation.

Another example, from New College of Florida, is their Master Plan Design Charrettes that took place over a week in 2005 involving students, alumni, administrators, professors, area residents, and local government staff members as well as Architects, Designers, and Planners from Moule & Polyzoides, The Folsom Group, the Florida House Institute for Sustainable Development, Hall Planning & Engineering, and Biohabitats in a process to make long range suggestions for the campus layout, landscaping, architecture, and transportation corridors of the master plan for its campus.

In some cases, a Charrette may be held on a recurring basis, such as the annual Charrette held by the Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning Department at Utah State University. Each February, the faculty choose a site in partnership with communities and groups throughout Utah, and hold an intense five [5] day design Charrette focusing on particular issues in that community or region. The Charrette begins with a field visit, followed by all-day work sessions accompanied by project stakeholders and volunteer Landscape Architects and other Professionals, and overseen by senior and graduate level students. The final work is then presented to the community. Charrettes such as these offer students and professionals the opportunity to work together in a close setting on real-world design scenarios, and often provide communities with tens of thousands of dollars of design work for free.

Many municipalities around the world develop long term city plans or visions through multiple charrettes - both communal and professional. Notable successes on the West Coast of Canada include the city of Vancouver, British Columbia, as well as the District of Tofino. Tofino won an Award of Excellence in Planning after a successful multi-day charrette.



Techarrettes are Charrettes that have been tailored for use in a technology or software setting. This collaborative process tool is founded on the principles of traditional Charrettes from the Urban Planning Community.

Techarrettes continue to utilize facilitated creative processes to build consensus, plan for projects and generate creative ideas. However, many of the processes in a traditional charrette are not applicable in the comparatively fast paced, quick to deployment and low litigation software and technology community.

Primarily, Agile practices such as eschewing documentation, rapid iteration, and prioritizing working software over process-plan deliverables have been incorporated. Initial efforts to import Charrette, without adequate demonstration and adoption of essential techniques have led to disappointing results akin to "brainstorming with drawings" [Hamlet 2012]. Practices that are typically effective within the Urban Planning Community have resulted in "agonizing experiences" [Shapiro 2013], indicating that retooling to reflect this community's unique perspective and tech-grown process continues to be the key to optimizing the benefits of the tool.

Currently, an open google-based working group, The Techarrette Group is working cooperatively within the wider tech sector to iterate and continuously improve techarrette practices for use in the community.


Origins of the Term "Charrette"

The word charrette is French for "cart" or "chariot".

In the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris in the 19th century, it was not unusual for student architects to continue working furiously in teams at the end of the allotted term, up until a deadline, when a Charrette would be wheeled among the students to pick up their scale models and other work for review while they, each working furiously to apply the finishing touches, were said to be working en charrette, in the cart. Émile Zola depicted such a scene of feverish activity, a nuit de charrette or charrette night, in L'Œuvre [serialized 1885, published 1886], his fictionalized account of his friendship with Paul Cézanne.

The term evolved into the current design-related usage in conjunction with working right up until a deadline.









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The California State Legislature empowers California agencies, departments and boards with the authority to issue regulations that enact as the state’s laws. All new or amended regulatory language must pass through the California Office of Administrative Law [OAL] for approval.  Once completed, these laws are filed with the Secretary of State’s Office to become enforceable law, known as the California Code of Regulations [CCR].

Since 1990, Barclay’s has been proud to be the official publisher of the CCR.  We strive to meet the needs of California businesses, citizens, and government agencies by providing the most accurate and current state regulations available. Barclays’ Official CCR is the most up to date and accurate regulations you can attain since we work directly with the California Office of Administrative Law.

The CCR is over twenty-six thousand [26,000] pages long and organized into twenty-six [26] separate Titles.  These regulations change every day, our one-year subscription ensures that our subscribers will stay compliant from day one.  We make a promise that you will receive the updates in a timely manner to your door, which will guarantee you protection.

The CCR carries the same force of law as legislation signed by the Governor or court decisions. Every business and governmental agency in California is impacted by these regulations and is responsible for following them. Non-compliance can result in fines, license revocation, or even closure.


Why Barclays

Barclays has been committed to producing and maintaining verifiably accurate, complete and current publications for over two decades. As the State’s official publisher of the California Code of Regulations, we believe it is important to provide regulations that you can trust completely.

If you attempted to read all existing U.S. law for ten [10] hours a day, seven days a week, you would not succeed. In fact, with every passing week you would fall years behind.  Barclays provides the important information you actually need to help you save time while staying informed.




A fiduciary is a person who holds a legal or ethical relationship of trust with one [1] or more other parties [person or group of persons]. Typically, a fiduciary prudently takes care of money for another person.

One party, for example a corporate trust company or the trust department of a bank, acts in a fiduciary capacity to the other one, who for example has entrusted funds to the fiduciary for safekeeping or investment. Likewise, asset managers—including managers of pension plans, endowments and other tax-exempt assets—are considered fiduciaries under applicable statutes and laws. In a fiduciary relationship, one person, in a position of vulnerability, justifiably vests confidence, good faith, reliance, and trust in another whose aid, advice or protection is sought in some matter. In such a relation good conscience requires the fiduciary to act at all times for the sole benefit and interest of the one who trusts.

A fiduciary duty is the highest standard of care at either equity or law. A fiduciary [abbreviation fid] is expected to be extremely loyal to the person to whom he owes the duty [the "principal": such that there must be no conflict of duty between fiduciary and principal, and the fiduciary must not profit from his position as a fiduciary [unless the principal consents].

In English common law the fiduciary relation is arguably the most important concept within the portion of the legal system known as equity. In the United Kingdom, the Judicature Acts merged the courts of equity [historically based in England's Court of Chancery] with the courts of common law, and as a result the concept of fiduciary duty also became available in common law courts.

When a fiduciary duty is imposed, equity requires a different, arguably stricter, standard of behavior than the comparable tortious duty of care at common law. It is said the fiduciary has a duty not to be in a situation where personal interests and fiduciary duty conflict, a duty not to be in a situation where his fiduciary duty conflicts with another fiduciary duty, and a duty not to profit from his fiduciary position without knowledge and consent. A fiduciary ideally would not have a conflict of interest. It has been said that fiduciaries must conduct themselves "at a level higher than that trodden by the crowd" and that "[t]he distinguishing or overriding duty of a fiduciary is the obligation of undivided loyalty".


Representational Fiduciary Relationships

The most common circumstance where a fiduciary duty will arise is between a trustee, whether real or juristic, and a beneficiary. The trustee to whom property is legally committed is the legal—i.e., common law—owner of all such property. The beneficiary, at law, has no legal title to the trust; however, the trustee is bound by equity to suppress his own interests and administer the property only for the benefit of the beneficiary. In this way, the beneficiary obtains the use of property without being its technical owner.

Others, such as corporate directors, may be held to a fiduciary duty similar in some respects to that of a trustee. This happens when, for example, the directors of a bank are trustees for the depositors, the directors of a corporation are trustees for the stockholders or a guardian is trustee of his ward's property. A person in a sensitive position sometimes protects himself from possible conflict of interest charges by setting up a blind trust, placing his financial affairs in the hands of a fiduciary and giving up all right to know about or intervene in their handling.

The fiduciary functions of trusts and agencies are commonly performed by a trust company, such as a commercial bank, organized for that purpose. In the United States, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency [OCC], an agency of the United States Department of the Treasury, is the primary regulator of the fiduciary activities of federal savings associations.

When a court desires to hold the offending party to a transaction responsible so as to prevent unjust enrichment, the judge can declare that a fiduciary relation exists between the parties, as though the offender were in fact a trustee for the partner.


Representational Elements of Duty

A fiduciary, such as the administrator, executor or guardian of an estate, may be legally required to file with a probate court or judge a surety bond, called a fiduciary bond or probate bond, to guarantee faithful performance of his duties. One of those duties may be to prepare, generally under oath, an inventory of the tangible or intangible property of the estate, describing the items or classes of property and usually placing a valuation on them.

A bank or other fiduciary having legal title to a mortgage may sell fractional shares to investors, thereby creating a participating mortgage.





Copyright is a legal right created by the law of a country that grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to its use and distribution, usually for a limited time.

The exclusive rights are not absolute; they are limited by limitations and exceptions to copyright law, including fair use.


Copyright is a form of Intellectual Property [IP], applicable to any expressed representation of a creative work. Under United States Copyright Law, however, legal protection attaches only to fixed representations in a tangible medium. It is often shared among multiple authors, each of whom holds a set of rights to use or license the work, and who are commonly referred to as rightsholders. These rights frequently include reproduction, control over derivative works, distribution, public performance, and "moral rights" such as attribution.

Copyrights are considered territorial rights, which means that they do not extend beyond the territory of a specific jurisdiction. While many aspects of national copyright laws have been standardized through International Copyright Agreements, copyright laws vary by country.

Typically, the Duration of Copyright is the author's life plus fifty [50] to one hundred [100] years [that is, copyright typically expires 50 to 100 years after the author dies, depending on the jurisdiction]. Some countries require certain Copyright Formalities to establishing copyright, but most recognize copyright in any completed work, without formal registration. Generally, copyright is enforced as a civil matter, though some jurisdictions do apply criminal sanctions.

Most jurisdictions recognize copyright limitations, allowing "fair" exceptions to the creator's exclusivity of copyright and giving users certain rights. The development of digital media and computer network technologies have prompted reinterpretation of these exceptions, introduced new difficulties in enforcing copyright, and inspired additional challenges to copyright law's philosophic basis. Simultaneously, businesses with great economic dependence upon copyright, such as those in the music business, have advocated the extension and expansion of copyright and sought additional legal and technological enforcement.

Copyright may apply to a wide range of creative, intellectual, or artistic forms, or "works". Specifics vary by jurisdiction, but these can include poems, theses, plays and other literary works, motion pictures, choreography, musical compositions, sound recordings, paintings, drawings, sculptures, photographs, computer software, radio and television broadcasts, and industrial designs. Graphic designs and industrial designs may have separate or overlapping laws applied to them in some jurisdictions.

Copyright does not cover ideas and information themselves, only the form or manner in which they are expressed. For example, the copyright to a Mickey Mouse cartoon restricts others from making copies of the cartoon or creating derivative works based on Disney's particular anthropomorphic mouse, but does not prohibit the creation of other works about anthropomorphic mice in general, so long as they are different enough to not be judged copies of Disney's. Note additionally that Mickey Mouse is not copyrighted because characters cannot be copyrighted; rather, Steamboat Willie is copyrighted and Mickey Mouse, as a character in that copyrighted work, is afforded protection.

In many jurisdictions, copyright law makes exceptions to these restrictions when the work is copied for the purpose of commentary or other related uses [fair use, fair dealing]. It should be noted that US Copyright does NOT cover names, title, short phrases or Listings [such as ingredients, recipes, labels, or formulas]. However, there are protections available for those areas copyright does not cover – such as trademarks and patents.

Copyright laws are standardized somewhat through international conventions such as the Berne Convention and Universal Copyright Convention. These multilateral treaties have been ratified by nearly all countries, and international organizations such as the European Union or World Trade Organization [WTO] require their member states to comply with them.


Barclays Update Service

Due to the immense quantity of amendments, your CCR Initial Code may become outdated without regular updates. Ordering the additional 1-Year Update Service subscription provides you with all regulatory amendments to your product for one year beyond the date of your Initial Code order. With Barclays regularly sending amendments to your door, you can ensure continual education on the hundreds of amendments each year. A 1-Year Update Service subscription must be ordered with the purchase of a corresponding Initial Code.


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Boutique Hotel with Golf Academy, Tennis Club, Health & Beauty Spa, and Fine Dining
Carlsbad    ·   California    ·   USA


TBNC Campus Hotels Program Exhibit Bouteque CRQ Palamar Airport Hotel Aerial View, Carlsbad, California USA





TBNC Edgemon Campus Hotels Boutique Hotel @ McC.Airport CRQ Draft Site Plan Studies with Golf Academy & Target Range, Carlsbad, California USA









TBNC Campus Hotel Program Representational Boutique Hotel Complex, Grubbing & Land Clearing Palomar Airport Road, Carlsbad, California USA  Edgemon Program




TBNC Edgemon Commercial Properties Campus Hotels of America Program Representational Boutique Hotel Development Carlsbad, California USA



Construction dewatering, unwatering, or water control are common terms used to describe removal or draining groundwater or surface water from a riverbed, construction site, caisson, or mine shaft, by pumping or evaporation.

On a construction site, this dewatering may be implemented before subsurface excavation for foundations, shoring, or cellar space to lower the water table.


This frequently involves the use of submersible "dewatering" pumps, centrifugal ["trash"] pumps, eductors, or application of vacuum to well points.

Horizontal Drainage Remediations

The installation of horizontal dewatering systems is relatively easy. A trencher installs an unperforated pipe followed by a synthetic or organic wrapped perforated pipe. The drain length is determined by the drain diameter, soil conditions and the water table. In general drain lengths of fifty [50] meters is common. After installation of the drainpipe a pump is connected to the drain.

After the water table has been lowered, the intended construction can start. After the construction is finished the pumps are stopped, and the water table will rise again. Installation depths up to six [6] meters are common.



TBNC Edgemon Commercial Properties Campus Hotels of America Representational Boutique Hotel Development Carlsbad, California USA TBNc Edgemon Campus Hotels of America, Built Boutique Unit at Carlsbad, California, Interiam Aerial Recordings Edgemon CSLB 274107 Environmental Planners, Site Designers, Engineers & Construction Managers California Edgemon USA TBNC Tom Edgemon California Contractor 274107 CSLB Edgemon Environmental Planners, Site Designers, Engineers & Construction Managers Edgemon California USA

Boutique Hotel Foundation Excavation
Lodging Units Framing Underway

Tennis Complex & Refreshments Venue
Golf Academy Training Tees + Practice Putting

Lodging Structures & Golf Course
View to PAR @ ECR Northeasterly



TBNC Edgemon Commercial Properties Campus Hotels of America Representational Boutique Hotel @ Palomar Airport, Carlsbad, California USA



Boutique Hotel is a term used initially in North America and the United Kingdom to describe small hotels which have typically between ten [10] and One Hundred [100] rooms in unique settings with upscale accommodations.

The same concept is used in hotels in South America, Asia, and Africa


Brief Boutique Hotel History

Boutique Hotels began appearing in the 1980s in major cities like London, New York City, and San Francisco. The term was coined by Steve Rubell in 1984 when he compared the Morgans Hotel, the first hotel he and Ian Schrager owned, to a Boutique.


Brief Boutique Hotel Description

Many Boutique Hotels are furnished in a themed, stylish and / or aspirational manner.

The popularity of the Boutique concept has prompted some multi-national hotel companies to try and capture a market share. In the United States, New York City remains an important centre for Boutique Hotels clustered about Manhattan.

Some members of the hospitality industry are following the general "no-frill chic" consumer trend, with affordable or budget Boutique Hotels being created all around the world. Boutique Hotels are found in London, New York City, Miami, Los Angeles and Carlsbad. They are also found in resort destinations with exotic amenities such as electronics, spas, yoga and/or painting classes.



TBNC Edgemon Commercial Properties Campus Hotels of America Representational Study Exhibit Boutique Hotel @ Palomar Airport Carlsbad, California  USA TBNC Edgemon Commercial Properties Campus Hotels of America Representational Campus Boutique Hotel @ Palomar Airport, Carlsbad, California USA

Facility Main Entry

Practice Putting Surface




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7040 AVENIDA ENCINAS   ·  SUITE 104.299
CARLSBAD    ·   CALIFORNIA   92011.4652

760.729.9231 Corporate    ·    760.434.5869 Facsimile










Gerald C. McClellan






On May 1, 1982, the County Board of Supervisors proclaimed the airport McClellan-Palomar Airport in honor of Gerald C. McClellan, who was instrumental in the incorporation of the City of Carlsbad and served on the city’s airport advisory committee and personnel commission. He was the past president and secretary of the Carlsbad Chamber of Commerce. He was also active in educational affairs and served on the board of directors of Mira Costa College, held a PTA life membership, and served on various school committees.

Mr. McClellan also sponsored a language scholarship trophy at Carlsbad High School. He was active in his church, where he served as president of the church corporation and also taught Sunday school. Additionally, as a youth leader, Mr. McClellan sat on the Carlsbad Boy’s Club advisory committee and awarded club members with rides in his personal airplane. He also served as a San Luis Rey District Boy Scouts chairman, scout master, and committee member.

Named after Gerald C. McClellan, a North County community leader and aviator, the McClellan-Palomar Airport serves as an entryway to and from North County San Diego. Local and international flights from across the globe touch down right here in Carlsbad’s own backyard.

Conveniently located in the heart of Carlsbad’s business district, surrounded by beautiful beaches, local attractions, and more, the airport embodies a real sense of local pride.


McClellan-Palomar Airport has seven [7] on-site staff dedicated full-time to its operation. The county has additional staff at the Gillespie Field airports headquarters who support all eight [8] county airports in areas such as real estate, maintenance, regulatory compliance, and other matters.

John Otto is the Assistant Airport Manager. He served twenty [20] years in the United States Navy in an aviation-related field. Before assuming his current position as Assistant Airport Manager at McClellan-Palomar Airport [CRQ], he also served as the noise officer and as assistant manager for Gillespie Field. John has a BS in Aviation Management from Southern Illinois University and a Master’s in Aeronautical Science from Embry Riddle Aeronautical University. John has been with the county for six and a half [6.5] years.








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7040 AVENIDA ENCINAS   ·  SUITE 104.299
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